An Enumeration of Lichenized Fungi from Sikandra Dhar Region of District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

Monika Thakur1* and Hem Chander 2

1 & 2 Division Botany, Department of Bio-Sciences, Career Point University, Hamirpur (H.P.), INDIA

* Correspondence: E-mail: thakurmonika382@gmail.com

(Received 11 Nov, 2018; Accepted 18 Dec, 2018; Published 19 Dec, 2018 )

ABSTRACT: Floristic studies have been initiated to explore diversity of lichenized fungi in Sikandra dhar region of district Mandi, Himachal Pradesh (India). Sikandra dhar region is situated in Shivalik hills zone of North-West Himalaya. A total of three hundred specimens of lichenized fungi were collected from Sikandra dhar region. During the morpho-chemotaxonomic investigations, a total of twenty five species of lichens (Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Körb.,Brianaria bauschiana (Körb.) S. Ekman & M. Svenss.,Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Arnold,Canoparmelia pustulescens (Kurok.) Elix,Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R. Laundon, C. chlorina (Ach.) J.R. Laundon,Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng,Dermatocarpon vellereum Zschacke,Heterodermia pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W.L. Culb,Hyperphyscia syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb,Hypotrachyna masonhalei Patw. & Prabhu,Lecanora chlarotera Nyl.,Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale, P. ravum (Krog & Swinscow) Sérus, P. tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale, Phaeophyscia ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg, P. hispidula (Ach.) Essl, Physcia crispa Nyl, P. integrata Nyl, P. semipinnata (Leers ex J.F. Gmel.) Moberg, Punctelia neutralis (Hale) Krog, P. subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog, Pyxine asiatica Vain, P. isidiophora (Müll. Arg.) Imshaug andP. subcinerea Stirt), belonging to fifteen genera (viz. Aspicilia A. Massal, Brianaria S. Ekman & M. Svenss, Candelaria A. Massal, Canoparmelia Elix & Hale, Chrysothrix Mont, Cladonia P. Browne, Dermatocarpon Eschw, Heterodermia Trevis , Hyperphyscia Müll. Arg, Hypotrachyna (Vain.) Hale, Lecanora Ach, Parmotrema A. Massal, Phaeophyscia Moberg, Punctelia Krog, Pyxine Fr.) of ten families (viz. Caliciaceae, Candelariaceae, Chrysotrichaceae, Cladoniaceae, Lecanoraceae, Megasporaceae, Parmeliaceae, Physciaceae, Psoraceae, Verrucariaceae) of lichenized fungi have been identified. Parmeliaceae and Physciaceae are the dominant families with six species each followed by Caliciaceae with three species. All these taxa have been recorded for the first time from Sikandra dhar region and deposited in CPUH ((The herbarium, Department of Bio-Sciences, Career Point University Hamirpur).

Keywords: Lichenized fungi; Mandi; North-Western Himalaya; Shivalik hills and Sikandra dhar.

INTRODUCTION: Lichens are fascinating dual organism entity, which are formed by the association of two or more entirely different types of organisms – a fungus (mycobiont) and an alga (phycobiont). Lichen thallus evolved through this symbiosis is unique as it appears and behaves quite differently from its component organisms. Lichens are the symbiotic organisms which not only play a major role in ecosystem but also in human welfare.1 Mycobiont, forming the major component in lichen thalli is the basis of lichen taxonomy. Lichens are thus regarded as a specialized group of fungi under lichenized fungi. 2 Lichens contribute about 8% of life forms on the earth’s surface.3 Indian lichens are represented by 2450 species belonging to 305 genera and 74 families which is about 10% of the 20,000 lichen species reported from world over.4

Whereas, a lot of researchers have explored lichen diversity of Himachal Pradesh, however, Sikandra dhar of Mandi district still remained unexplored.5-21 Owing to the ecological and economic importance and in contrast to the insufficient data available on the geographical distribution, the floristic investigations were initiated to describe and preserve lichen diversity of this area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the present study, lichen specimens were collected from in and around Sikandra dhar. Sikandra Dhar is situated in Shivalik hill zone of North Western Himalaya and is located in district Mandi of Himachal Pradesh (India). A total of three hundred specimens of lichenized fungi were collected from twenty one localities (viz. Gehayin Ka Galu, Ghaadi, Churain, Darba, Murari Devi, Pandit Ka Naun, Sikandra, Chunathar, Jaba, Badi, Kashmali, Naina Devi, Kuntbhiyog, Doh, Bhauran, Chowk, Padhyan, Karni, Plasi, Matiyara and Samaila) of Sikandra Dhar region during February 2018 to July 2018. The field data such as texture, size, colour, macroscopic features and form have been noted in the field book during excursions.22 Fresh specimens were observed and sun dried at the camping site. These were brought laboratory for further taxonomic studies and have been deposited in CPUH (The herbarium, Department of Bio-Sciences, Career Point University Hamirpur). The collected lichen specimens were initially segregated according to their growth forms and further grouped according to frutification type (apothecia, perithecia, sterile). Identity of specimens was confirmed by comparing their morphology, anatomy and chemistry with authenticated taxonomic keys. 23,24,25 The chemicals used for the chemical spot tests of the lichens were prepared using standard method.26

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the present study, a total of twenty five species of lichenized fungi have been enumerated from twenty one localities of Sikandra Dhar region for the first time (Table 1 and Table 2). The morphological and chemotaxonomic details of these species are being provided below:

1. Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Körb.

Parerga lichenol. (Breslau) 1: 94 (1859)

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Synonyms: Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf., Lecanora calcarea (L.) Sommerf.,Lecanora cinerea var. calcarea (L.) Nyl.,Lecanora depressa var. calcarea (L.) Nyl.,Lecanora lilliei (B. de Lesd.) A.L. Sm.,Lecidea alboatra f. calcarea (Ach.) Torss.,Lecidea alboatra var. calcarea (Ach.) Malbr.,Lecidea amylacea var. speirea Wahlenb., Lecidea calcarea (Ach.) Schaer., Lecidea margaritacea var. calcarea (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea petraea var.calcarea (Ach.) Nyl., Lecidea platycarpa var. calcarea (Ach.) Del Amo, Lecidea speirea (Wahlenb.) Gray, Lecidea speirea var. calcarea Ach.,Lichen calcareus L., Lichen calcareus Weiss, Lichen speireus Sm. & Sowerby, Psora calcarea (L.) Hampe, Rhizocarpon calcareum (Ach.) Anzi, Rhizocarpon calcareum (Ach.) Anzi, Siegertia calcarea (Ach.) Körb., Urceolaria calcarea (L.) Ach., Verrucaria calcarea (L.) Humb., Zeora calcarea (L.) Flot.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus saxicolous, crustose, chalky white, smooth to cracked-areolate crust, margin well-defined, usually with radial cracking. Apothecia immersed in the thallus, with black discs, or initially grey-pruinose, one or more per areole.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3054, on rock, Kunt bhiyog (H. P.), 1751m, March 18, 2018.

2. Brianaria bauschiana (Körb.) S. Ekman & M. Svenss.

Lichenologist 46(3) : 292 (2014)

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Synonym: Biatora bauschiana Körb., Lecidea bauschiana (Körb.) Lettau, Micarea bauschiana (Körb.) V. Wirth & Vezda

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus saxicolous, crustose. Apothecia convex, without an excipulum, an ascus of ‘Psora-type’, 0-1-septate ascospores, dimorphic paraphyses, and immersed pycnidia containing bacilliform conidia.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3002, on bark, Naina Devi (H. P.), 1911m, March 2, 2018; CPUH 3006, on bark, Naina Devi (H. P.), 1911m, March 2, 2018; CPUH 3009, on bark, Naina Devi (H. P.), 1911m, March 2, 2018; CPUH 3110, on bark, Naina Devi (H. P.), 1911m, March 2, 2018.

3. Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Arnold

Flora Regensburg 62: 364 (1879)

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Synonym: Lichen concolor Dicks., Lobaria concolor (Dicks.) Hoffm.,Blasteniospora concolor (Dicks.) Trevis.,Xanthoria concolor (Dicks.) Th. Fr., Lecanora concolor (Dicks.) Lamy, Physcia concolor (Dicks.) Bagl. & Carestia, Teloschistes concolor (Dicks.) Tuck., Caloplaca concolor (Dicks.) Jatta.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, in rosettes, upto 15 mm across, minutely lobate; lobes yellowish, upto 2mm long and 0.5 mm wide with granular soredia at lobe ends; Cortex and apothecia K-, C-, KC-, P-, Calycin and pulvinic acid present.

Specimen Examined: CPUH 3088, on bark, near Murari Devi temple, 1753m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

4. Canoparmelia pustulescens (Kurok.) Elix

Mycotaxon 47: 127 (1993)

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Synonym: Paraparmelia pustulescens (Kurok.) Elix & J.Johnst., Parmelia pustulescens Kurok., Pseudoparmelia pustulescens (Kurok.) Hale.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus saxicolous, foliose, upto 5cm across, closely adnate; lobes sublinear, to 1.2 mm wide, black rimmed near tips; upper side rugulose, isidiate; isidia, irregularly inflated bursting open apically to produce coarse soredia; lower side black sparsely rhizinate; medulla white. Medulla K-, C-, KC-, P-. Sekikaic, homosekikaic and fatty acids present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3008, on rock, Gehayin ka galu, 1590m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3101, on rock, Gehayin ka galu, 1595m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

5. Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R. Laundon

Lichenologist 13(2) : 110 (1981)

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Synonym: Byssus candelaris L., Lepra candelaris (L.) F.H. Wigg., Patellaria candelaris (L.) DC., Lepraria candelaris (L.) Fr., Lepraria candelaria (L.) Fr., Alysphaeria candelaris (L.) Turpin.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, crustose, leprose, forming scattered granules, bright yellow with greenish tinge, composed of a mass of fine soredia, 12-30(-40) µm in diam. K- or K+ orange, sometimes darkening to red-black, C-, KC-, P- or P+ orange; UV+ dull orange or UV-. Calycin and/or pinastric acid present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3004, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H. P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3083, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H. P.), February 25, 2018.

6. Chrysothrix chlorina (Ach.) J.R. Laundon

Lichenologist 13(2) : 106 (1981)

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Synonym: Lichen chlorinus Ach., Pulveraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach., Alysphaeria chlorina (Ach.), Trachylia chlorina (Ach.) Rabenh., Calicium chlorinum (Ach.) Schaer.,Calicium chlorinum subsp. chlorinum (Ach.) Schaer., Cyphelium chlorinum (Ach.) Kremp, Coniocybe chlorina (Ach.) Rabenh., Crocynia chlorina (Ach.) Hue, Caliciella corynella var. chlorina (Ach.) Räsänen.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, leprose, loosely attached, lacking well-defined lobes, forming extensive, irregularly spreading patches, consisting of greenish grey granules, granules variable, spherical or irregular, 40–75 µm across. K±, KC± reddish, C–, PD–, UV–; calycin and vulpinic acid present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3097, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3099, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3100, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018, CPUH 3108, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3053, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3040, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3031, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3017, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3014, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3112, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3109, on bark, 1760m, Shikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

7. Cladonia coniocraea (Flörke) Spreng

Syst. Veg., Edn 16, 4(1): 273 (1827)

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Synonym: Cenomyce coniocraea Flörke.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, strato-radiate, squamules of primary thallus small to medium sized, persistent. Podetia green, 5-15 mm tall, 0.5-1 mm thick at base, usually simple, sparingly branched, tapering, subulate, totally sorediate. Podetia K-, or K+ faintly brownish, KC-, P+ red. Fumarprotocetraic acid present.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3045 on bark, Murari Devi Temple, 1753m, Sikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

8. Dermatocarpon vellereum Zschacke

Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 9, 1(1) : 638 (1934)

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Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus saxicolous, foliose, usually monophyllous, upto 12 cm across, umbilicate, rather thick, leathery; upper side light brownish to brownish red, white to dark pruinose; lower side black, with dense, thick, stumpy, coralloid rhizinomorphs; thallus 200-450 µm thick in marginal area, 600-1000 µm thick in central part; upper cortex 18-35µm thick; lowesr cortex 35-100 µm thick. Perithecia pale red; ascospores ellipsoid, 9-12 X (-5) 6-9 µm.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3117, on rock, Ghaadi, 1667m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

9. Heterodermia pseudospeciosa (Kurok.) W.L. Culb,

Bryologist 69 : 484 (1967)

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Synonym: Anaptychia pseudospeciosa Kurok.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus terricolous,foliose, rosettiform, upto 5cm across, branched; lobes short, flexuose, to 1.5 mm wide, corticated on both sides; upper side greyish white, sorediate on apices of lobules; lower side white to dark, with sparse rhizines. Medulla K+ yellow turning red, C-, P+ yellow. Zeorin, norstictic and salazinic acids present.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3042, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

10. Hyperphyscia syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb

Lichenes Neotropici, Fascicle VI (nos 201-250) (Neumarkt) : no. 230 (1983)

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Synonym: Physcia syncolla Tuck. ex Nyl., Physciopsis syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Poelt.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foiliose, firmly adnate, usually not separable, upto 2 cm across: lobes upto 2 mm wide: upper side greyish brown to dark brown, pruinose or not, centrally often verrucose, lacking isidia and soredia; medulla white; lower side brown to black centrally. Apothecia to 2 mm in diameter; ascospores. Medulla K+ purple (skyrin).

Specimen examined: CPUH 3042, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

11. Hypotrachyna masonhalei Patw. & Prabhu

Bryologist 80(2) : 348 (1977)

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Synonym: Parmelia mason-halei (Patw. & Prabhu) Ajay Singh.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foiliose, upto 7 cm across, lobate; lobes linear, upto 2 mm wide; upper surface grey, lacking isidia and soredia; lower side blackish with sparse, dichotomously branched rhizines; medulla white. Medulla K+ yellow turning red, C-, P+ orange. Norstictic and salazinic acid present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3051, on bark, Kunth bhiyog (H. P.), March 18, 2018; CPUH 3052, on bark, Kunth Bhiyog (H. P.), March 18, 2018.

12. Lecanora chlarotera Nyl.

Soc. Linn. Normandie, Sér. 2 6(2): 274 (1872)

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Synonyms: Lecanora albella f. chlarona (Ach.) Blomb. & Forssell,Lecanora albella var. chlarona (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora chlarona (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora chlarona (Ach.) Nyl., Lecanora chlarona (Ach.) Nyl.,Lecanora chlarona var. chlarotera (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Lecanora chlarotera f. crassula (H. Magn.) Poelt, Lecanora coilocarpa var. chlarona (Ach.) Elenkin,Lecanora crassula H. Magn., Lecanora distincta var.chlarona Ach., Lecanora rugosa Nyl.,Lecanora subfusca f. chlarona (Ach.) Körb.,Lecanora subfusca f. chlarotera (Nyl.) H. Olivier,Lecanora subfusca var. chlarona (Ach.) Ach., Lecanora subfusca var. chlarotera (Nyl.) Harm.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, crustose, pale grey, strongly warted, forming distinct, rounded colonies but not bounded by a prothallus. Apothecia with thick, thalline, crenulated or contorted margins, discs buff to chestnut brown.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3011, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3049, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3104 on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandar Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

13. Parmotrema austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale

Phytologia 28 : 335 (1974)

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Synonym: Parmelia austrosinensis Zahlbr.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, upto 10 cm across; lobes rotund, upto 15 (-20) mm wide, eciliate upper side glaucous to pale grey, faintly white-maculate, soralia marginal, linear; soredia farinose to granular; lower side centrally black, wide marginal zone ivory, yellow-brown mottled, nude; medulla white. Medulla K-,C+ red, KC+ red, P Lecanoric acid present.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3091, on twig, Chowk, 1133m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

14. Parmotrema ravum (Krog & Swinscow) Sérus

In: Vezda, Lichenes Selecti Exsiccati, Fascicle 75 (Pruhonice): 3 (1983)

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Synonym: Parmelia rava Krog & Swinscow

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, adnate, upto 10cm across; lobes 5-12 mm wide, eciliate; upper side pale yellow grey, faintly white maculate or emaculate, soralia marginal, linear to subcapitate on peripheral lobes; soredia granular; lower side centrally black, marginal zone tan, nude; medulla white. Cortex K+ yellow; medulla K-, C-, KC-, P+ orange- red. Atranorin and usnic acid in cortex; protocetraric acid in medulla.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3096, on bark, Sikandra, 1540m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

15. Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale

Phytologia 28: 339 (1974)

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Synonym: Parmelia tinctoria Despr. ex Nyl., Parmelia tinctorum Despr. ex Nyl., Parmotrema tinctorium (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foiliose, usually 8-20 cm across, eciliate; upper side grey to darker, emaculate; isidia granular to filiform becoming coralloid or rarely flattened; lower side centrally black, wide marginal zone tan to brown, nude; medulla white. Medulla K-, C+ red, P-. Lecanoric acid and traces of orsellinic acid present.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3087, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

16. Phaeophyscia ciliata (Hoffm.) Moberg

Symb. Bot. Upsal. 22(1) : 30 (1977)

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Synonym: Lichen ciliatus Hoffm., Physcia ciliata (Hoffm.) Du Rietz

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, up to 5 cm across; lobes upto 1.5 mm wide; upper side grey-brown to brown-black, lacking isidia and soredia; lower side black, rhizinate; photobiont layer irregularly thick; medulla white, thinApothecia to 3 mm in diam., coronate; ascospores Physcia-type, (18-) 20-26 (-28) X 8-12 µm.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3048, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3062, on bark, near Murari Devi Temple, 2133m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018.

17. Phaeophyscia hispidula (Ach.) Essl.

Mycotaxon 7(2) : 305 (1978)

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Synonym: Parmelia hispidula Ach., Physcia hispidula (Ach.) Frey, Phaeophyscia hispidula (Ach.) Essl.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, upto 8 cm across; lobes 2-3 (-5) mm wide, with rounded apices; upper side grey-brown; soralia laminal, capitate, often extending up to margin; soredia rarely becoming granular; lower side black, rhizines long, black, projecting beyond the lobes; medulla white. Apothecia to 3 mm in diam., coronate; ascospores Physcia-to Pachysporaria-type, 18-27 (-30) X 9-12 (-15) µm.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3050, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3068, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3069, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3070, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3071, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3075, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3103, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3105, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3106, on bark, Pandit ka naun, 1745m, Sikandra dhar, February 25, 2018.

18. Physcia crispa Nyl.

Syn. Meth. Lich. (Parisiis) 1(2) : 423 (1860)

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Synonym: Dimelaena crispa (Nyl.) Trevis.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, upto 3 cm across; lobes 1 mm wide, crenulated, with small protrusions becoming isidia-like and breaking into soredia; upper side grey to bluish grey; lower side whitish; rhizines pale; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous. Medulla K-.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3001, on bark, Gehayin ka galu, 1590 m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3003, on bark, Gehayin ka galu, 1590 m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3085, on bark, Gehayin ka galu, 1590 m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

19. Physcia integrata Nyl.

Syn. Meth. Lich. (Parisiis) 1(2) : 424 (1860)

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Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, upto 5 cm across; lobes 1-2 mm wide, rarely minutely lobulate in central part; upper side greyish, lacking isidia and soredia; lower side black; lower cortex paraplectenchymatous. Apothecia to 2 mm in diam.; ascospores Pachysporaria-type, 18-28 X 8-12 µm. Medulla K+ yellow, leucotylin and zeorin present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3024, on bark, near forest rest house, Murari Devi, 2061m, Sikandra Dhar, February 25, 2018; CPUH 3056, on bark, near forest rest house, Murari Devi, 2061m, Sikandra Dhar, February 25, 2018.

20. Physcia semipinnata (Leers ex J.F. Gmel.) Moberg

Symb. Bot. Upsal. 22(1) : 56 (1977)

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Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, loosely adnate, orbicular, upto 3cm across; thalli often confluent covering larger areas; lobes long, narrow, upto 1mm wide; ascending; marginal cilia long with darker tips; upper side whitish grey to darker, white-maculate, lacking isidia and soredia; lower side pale grey to brown; rhizines few, slightly darker, blackened at tips. Apothecia upto 3 mm in diam; ascospores 17-22(-24) X 7.5-10 µm. Medulla K-.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3085, on bark, Doh (H.P.), 1250m, March 18, 2018.

21. Punctelia neutralis (Hale) Krog

Nordic J. Bot. 2(3) : 291 (1982)

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Synonym: Parmelia neutralis Hale

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, to 5cm across; lobes to 5mm wide, grey to brownish grey; pseudocyphellae laminal, becoming sorediate; medulla white; lower side pale brown. Chemistry: Medulla K-, C-, P-. Caperatic acid present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3072, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3077, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3080, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

22. Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog

Nordic J. Bot. 2(3) : 291 (1982)

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Synonym: Parmelia subrudecta Nyl., Parmelia borreri var. subrudecta (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux.

Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thalllus corticolous, 4-6 cm across; lobes 1-3 mm wide; upper side grey to bluish grey, pseudocyphellae punctiform, becoming sorediate; laminal and marginal soralia also present; lower side pale brown. Pycnoconidia unciform, 5-7 µm long. Medulla K-,C+ red, KC+ red, P-. Lecanoric acid present.

Specimen examined: CPUH 3089, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

23. Pyxine asiatica Vain

Hedwigia 46 : 171 (1907)

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Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, upto 3 cm across; lobes 0.8-1.5 mm wide at periphery; upper side grey to greenish grey, white- maculate, maculae later fissured into pseudocyphellae; soralia laminal, orbicular; soredia farinose; medulla white. Medulla K+ yellowish, C-, P+ yellow to orange, triterpenes present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3113, on rock, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3064, on rock, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

24. Pyxine isidiophora (Müll. Arg.) Imshaug

Lamb's Index nom. Lich. : 612

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Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous; foliose, lobes convex; upper side whitish grey, isidiate; isidia globose to cylindrical, simple to branched; medulla white. Apothecia to 2.4 mm in diam.; margins pseudothalline; ascospores 13-17 (-19) X 5-8 µm.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3067, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikandra dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

25. Pyxine subcinerea Stirt

Trans. Proc. N.Z. Inst. 30 : 397 (1898)

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Morpho-chemotaxonomic characters: Thallus corticolous, foliose, upto 7 cm across; lobes 1-2 mm wide; upper side greyish; margins intermittently pseudocyphellate; pseudocyphellate developing into soralia and spreading on to lamina; soredia white to stramineous; medulla yellow. Apothecia 1-2 mm in diameter; exciple pseudothalline in young stages, later black; ascospores 12-20 (22) X 6-8 µm. Upper cortex UV+ yellow; medulla K-, C-, P-, lichexanthone in cortex and triterpenes in medulla present.

Specimens examined: CPUH 3073, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikander Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3074, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikander Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018; CPUH 3079, on bark, Shikandra, 1540m, Sikander Dhar (H.P.), February 25, 2018.

Table 1: Number of specimens collected and identified lichenized fungi from twenty one localities of Shikndra region.

Localities

No. of specimens

Identified species

Murari Devi

4

Cladonia coniocraea

Heterodermia pseudospeciosa

Physcia crispa

Physcia integrata

Gehayin ka Galu

5

Brianaria bauschiana

Canoparmelia pustulescens

Chrysothrix candelaris

Parmotrema austrosinense

Physcia crispa

Ghaadi

2

Chrysothrix chlorina

Lecanora chlarotera

Churain

3

Chrysothrix chlorina

Cladonia coniocraea

Physcia integrata

Darba

1

Chrysothrix chlorina

Pandit ka Naun

4

Aspicilia calcarea

Hypotrachyna masonhalei

Lecanora chlarotera

Phaeophyscia ciliata

Sikandra

4

Phaeophyscia ciliata

Physcia crispa

Physcia integrata

Pyxine asiatica

Chunathar

2

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Pyxine isidiophora

Jaba

3

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Punctelia neutralis

Pyxine subcinerea

Badi

3

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Punctelia neutralis

Pyxine subcinerea

Kashmali

3

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Physcia crispa

Physcia semipinnata

Naina devi

3

Chysothrix candalensis

Parmotrema tinctorum

Physcia crispa

Kuntbhiyog

5

Chrysothrix chlorina,

Hyperphyscia syncolla

Parmotrema ravum

Physcia integrata

Punctelia subrudecta

Doh

5

Chrysothrix chlorina,

Lecanora chlarotera

Hyperphyscia syncolla

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Physcia crispa

Bhauran

2

Brianaria bauschiana

Pyxine asiatica

Chowk

2

Dermatocarpon vellereum

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Padhyan

3

Lecanora chlarotera

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Physcia crispa

Karni

3

Chrysothrix chlorine

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Physcia crispa

Plasi

3

Chrysothrix chlorine

Lecanora chlarotera

Physcia integrata

Matiyara

4

Dermatocarpon vellereum

Lecanora chlarotera,

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Physcia crispa

Samaila

1

Chrysothrix chlorina

Total 2: Lichenized fungi of Shikndra dhar region.

Sr. No.

Family

Genera

Species

1

Caliciaceae

Pyxine

Pyxine asiatica

Pyxine isidiophora

Pyxine subcinerea

2

Candelariaceae

Candelaria

Candelaria concolor

3

Chrysotrichaceae

Chrysothrix

Chrysothrix candelaris

Chrysothrix chlorina

4

Cladoniaceae

Cladonia

Cladonia coniocraea

5

Lecanoraceae

Lecanora

Lecanora chlarotera

6

Megasporaceae

Aspicilia

Aspicilia calcarea

7

Parmeliaceae

Canoparmelia

Canoparmelia pustulescens

Hypotrachyna

Hypotrachyna masonhalei

Parmotrema

Parmotrema austrosinense

Parmotrema ravum

Parmotrema tinctorum

Punctelia

Punctelia neutralis

Punctelia subrudecta

8

Physciaceae

Heterodermia

Heterodermia pseudospeciosa

Hyperphyscia

Hyperphyscia syncolla

Phaeophyscia

Phaeophyscia ciliata

Phaeophyscia hispidula

Physcia crispa

Physcia integrata

Physcia semipinnata

9

Psoraceae

Brianaria

Brianaria bauschiana

10

Verrucariaceae

Dermatocarpon

Dermatocarpon vellereum

Table 3: Species already documented from Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh19.

Sr. No.

Family

Species

1

Collemataceae

Collema rugosum

2

Lecanoraceae

Aspicilia caesiocinerea

3

Lecanoraceae

Aspicilia calcarea

4

Parmeliaceae

Parmotrema nilgherrense

5

Parmeliaceae

Punctelia rudecta

6

Peltigeraceae

Peltigera dolichorhiza

7

Physciaceae

Heterodermia diademata

8

Caliciaceae

Pyxine petricola

9

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium assamiense

10

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium oculatum

11

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium platystomum

12

Pyrenulaceae

Pyrenula immersa

13

Pyrenulaceae

Pyrenula introducta

14

Pyrenulaceae

Pyrenula oculata

15

Ramalinaceae

Ramalina sinensis

16

Verrucariaceae

Dermatocarpon vellereum

17

Verrucariaceae

Staurothele clopima


CONCLUSION: During the present study, twenty five species of lichenized fungi have been recorded from Skindra dhar reion of district mandi. Earlier researchers have reported seventeen species of lichens from the entire district except from the present study area (Table 3).19 The analysis of the baseline data with the current findings has revealed that out of the twenty five species recorded during the present study, two species are same (Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Körb, Dermatocarpon vellereum Zschacke) other twenty three species are new record for the district Mandi of Himachal Pradesh. It is being concluded that with the addition of these twenty three species, the species diversity of lichenized fungi of district Mandi (Himachal Pradesh) accounts for forty species (Table 4).

Table 4: Ckecklist of species of lichenized fungi in district Mandi (Himachal Pradesh).

Sr. No.

Family

Species

1.

Caliciaceae

Pyxine asiatica

2.

Caliciaceae

Pyxine isidiophora

3.

Caliciaceae

Pyxine petricola

4.

Caliciaceae

Pyxine subcinerea

5.

Candelariaceae

Candelaria concolor

6.

Chrysotrichaceae

Chrysothrix candelaris

7.

Chrysotrichaceae

Chrysothrix chlorina

8.

Cladoniaceae

Cladonia coniocraea

9.

Collemataceae

Collema rugosum

10.

Lecanoraceae

Aspicilia caesiocinerea

11.

Lecanoraceae

Lecanora chlarotera

12.

Megasporaceae

Aspicilia calcarea

13.

Parmeliaceae

Canoparmelia pustulescens

14.

Parmeliaceae

Hypotrachyna masonhalei

15.

Parmeliaceae

Parmotrema austrosinense

16.

Parmeliaceae

Parmotrema nilgherrense

17.

Parmeliaceae

Parmotrema ravum

18.

Parmeliaceae

Parmotrema tinctorum

19.

Parmeliaceae

Punctelia neutralis

20.

Parmeliaceae

Punctelia rudecta

21.

Parmeliaceae

Punctelia subrudecta

22.

Peltigeraceae

Peltigera dolichorhiza

23.

Parmeliaceae

Heterodermia pseudospeciosa

24.

Parmeliaceae

Heterodermia diademata

25.

Parmeliaceae

Hyperphyscia syncolla

26.

Parmeliaceae

Phaeophyscia ciliata

27.

Parmeliaceae

Phaeophyscia hispidula

28.

Parmeliaceae

Physcia crispa

29.

Parmeliaceae

Physcia integrata

30.

Parmeliaceae

Physcia semipinnata

31.

Psoraceae

Brianaria bauschiana

32.

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium assamiense

33.

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium oculatum

34.

Pyrenulaceae

Anthracothecium platystomum

35.

Pyrenulaceae

Pyrenula immersa

36.

Pyrenulaceae

Pyrenula introducta

37.

Pyrenulaceae

Pyrenula oculata

38.

Ramalinaceae

Ramalina sinensis

39.

Verrucariaceae

Dermatocarpon vellereum

40.

Verrucariaceae

Staurothele clopima

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to Chancellor, Career Point University Hamirpur for providing the necessary laboratory facilities.

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