Multivariate Biometrical Studies on Vespa spp. from Himachal Pradesh

Karuna Singh Jamwal1*, Kuldip Singh2 and M. L. Thakur3

1 Govt. Sr. Secondary School Dalhousie, Distt. Chamba (H.P.), INDIA

2 corresponding author: HP Forest Department, Forest Division Dalhousie, Chamba (H.P.), INDIA

3 HP State Biodiversity Board, Paryavaran Bhawan, Shimla-1 (H.P.), INDIA

* Correspondence: E-mail: jamwal73@yahoo.com

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33980/jbcc.2019.v05i01.025

(Received 05 May, 2019; Accepted 17 Jun, 2019; Published 24 Jun, 2019 )

ABSTRACT: Present research work deals with comprehensive biometrical studies conducted on hymenopteran, especially members of family vespidae viz. Vespa auraria collected from 10 localities, V. tropica from 3 localities, V. basalis from 4 localities, V. orientalis, Polistes hebraeus and Ropalidia ferruginea from one locality respectively sampled from different agroclimatic zones of Himachal Pradesh, situated in the lap of north west Himalayas. Different species were sampled from 14 localities having different altitude and climatic conditions. 59 morphological characters pertaining to mouthparts, antenna, forewing, hindwing, foreleg, hindleg, tergites and sternites were studied. Biometrical data was analysed statistically, using Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncans Multiple Range test, t-test, correlation and Multivariate Discriminant Analysis.

Keywords: Multivariate Discriminant Analysis; Biometrical Studies; Vespa spp. and Himachal Pradesh.

INTRODUCTION: Wasps and hornets are social and cosmopolitan insects of great economic importance to mankind. They provide ecosystem services by crosspollination of several cultivated and wild plant species. In this way, they help in boasting crop productivity, maintenance of biodiversity and in conservation of forest and grassland ecosystems (Crane, 1990; Martin, 1992).

Various species of wasp and hornets have locally adapted populations called ecotypes. The variations within geographical ecotypes are the result of continuous process of natural selection through centuries for a specific niche (Ruttner, 1969, 1971, 1975). The knowledge of these ecotype races is useful for the genetic improvement of wasp and hornets spp. by selection and breeding. In these breeding programmes, geneticists and breeders not only depend on the qualitative characters, but also on the quantitative characters such as different morphological characters that affect the pollination ability.

The biometrical studies based on modern multivariate morphmetrics techniques provide a reliable method in the identification of different sub-species and ecotypes of wasps and hornets. These identification methods are very helpful in the formulation of physical standards for measuring quantitative progress in the genetic improvement of a particular sub-species. The taxonomical status of wasps is still problematical, because of very less information available on its biometrical, behavioural and cytological aspects (Akre and Davis, 1978; Spradbery, 1990 and Sharma, 1996). Therefore, identification of different ecotypes/ geographic populations of Vespa spp. is needed. The biometrical studies based on modern multivariate morphometric technique provide a reliable method to identify different sub-species and ecotypes of wasps. These also help in the formulation of physical standards for measuring quantitatively the progress made in genetic improvement of particular sub-species.

Many investigators have studied the multivariate biometrics of Apis spp. throughout the world (Daly and Balling, 1978; Ruttner, 1971, 1975, 1976, 1979). Some investigators have studied the biometrics of Vespa spp. in Asian and Indian subcontinent (Matsuura and Sakagami, 1973; Sharma, 1996). However, practically no work has been done regarding morphometry, behavioural and foraging ecology of Vespa spp in Indian subcontinent. Therefore, it is very important to study the biometrics of Vespa spp. so as to evolve suitable methods for identification of various ecotypes/races.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wasp samples were collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh having different altitudes and climatic conditions, during spring, rainy and autumn seasons of the year 1997-99. An attempt has been also made to identify the taxonomically significant biometric characters and their utility in characterizing sub-species/ecotypes of Vespa auraria through computer based multivariate discriminant analysis.

Collection of Wasp Samples: Samples of wasp were collected from 15 different localities of Himachal Pradesh having different altitudes, latitudes, longitudes and climatic conditions. Places of collection of golden wasp. V. auraria S. samples were, Chamba (1006m), Hamirpur (790m), Harar, Lad Bharol (1219), Longani, Sarkaghat (1100m), Sunder Nagar (900m) in Mandi, Ghumarwin (725m) in Bilaspur, Sainz (1300m) in Kullu, Kunihar (976m) in Solan, Sunni (620m) in Shimla, Nahan (1020m) in Sirmaur areas (Table 1), Whereas, Vespa basalis samples were collected from Sunder Nagar (900m), Jandhroo in Mandi (1250m), Hamirpur (790m), Krishna Nagar in Kangra (1050m), whereas, V. tropica samples were collected from Kunihar (976m), Sunder Nagar (900m), Chamba (1006m) and Vespa orientalis was collected from Daulatpur Chowk in Una (500m). Golden wasps Polistes hebraeus and Ropalidia ferruginea (Fabr) were sampled from Nalagarh in Solan (500m) and Ner Chowk in Mandi (800m) areas respectively.

Wasp samples were collected with the help of an insect net/aspirator and collections were made during the rainy and autumn seasons. Each sample consisted of fifty field wasps (workers). Wasps were anesthetised with chloroform or with a mixture of chloroform and ether in the ratio of 1:3 and killed in warm water so as to ensure the complete protrusion of proboscis. Dead wasp samples were then preserved in Pamplles fixative of following composition (Ruttner et al., 1978; Ruttner, 1988).

Distilled water = 100 ml

95% Alcohol = 50 ml

Formalin = 20 ml

Acetic acid = 10 ml

Dissection and Mounting of Morphological Parts: Different morphological parts were dissected out and mounted in specially prepared Arabic gum medium of following composition.

Arabic gum = 8 gm

Distilled water = 8 ml

Glycerine = 5 ml

Acetic Acid = 3 ml

Thymol = 1 to 2 crystals

The mountant was prepared in the laboratory by soaking 8 gm of Arabic gum in 8 ml of distilled water and kept overnight in the morning a mixture of glycerine, acetic acid and thymol were added to the above solution and mixed thoroughly in order to get a uniform mixture. The whole mixture was then heated on water bath at about 60 to 70 oC for about two hours. It was then filtered while hot, through the glass wool. The filterate was collected and stored as mountant.

All the morphological parts were mounted in between the two glass slides except tergites and sternites. The later were mounted on glass rods so as to retain their natural shape and for simplifying the procedure of measurement. The slides and rods thus prepared were then dried in an oven at 40 to 50C.

Measurement of Morphological Parts: Different morphological parts were measured with the help of a stereomicroscope equipped with an ocular scale except various wing venation angles. Measurement of different parametres of wing as well as various wing venation angles was taken with the help of a slide projector (Mattu, 1982).

The following 59 morphological characters were studied:

A) Mouthparts ( Fig)

1) Length of galea (GIL)

2) Breadth of galea (GIB)

3) Length of maxillary palp (MpL)

4) Length of glossa (GsL)

5) Breadth of glossa (GsB)

6) Length of paraglossa (PgL)

7) Length of labial palp (LpL)

8) Length of hypopharynx (HpL)

9) Breadth of hypopharynx (HpB)

10) Total length of glossa and hypopharynx (GHL)

B) Antenna (Fig)

11) Length of scape (SpL)

12) Length of pedicel (PdL)

13) Length of flagellum (FgL)

14) Total antennal length (AtL)

C) Forewing (Fig)

15) Length of forewing (FwL)

16) Breadth of forewingFwB)

17) Length of radial cell (RcL)

18) Breadth of radial cell (RcB)

19 to 29) Different wing venation angles (Angle 19 to 29)

D) Hindwing (Fig)

30) Length of hindwing (HwL)

31) Breadth of hindwingHwB)

32) Length of basal portion of radial vein (RBL)

33) Length of apical portion of radial vein (RaL)

34) Length of discoidal vein (DcL)

35) Length of indica vein (IdL)

36) Number of hamuli (HmN)

37) Extent of hamuli (HmE)

E) Forelegs (Fig)

38) Length of trochanter (TcL1)

39) Length of femur (FmL1)

40) Length of tibia (TbL1)

41) Length of tibial spur (TsL1)

42) Length of tarsus (TrL1)

F) Hindlegs (Fig)

43) Length of trochanter (TcL3)

44) Length of femur (FmL3)

45) Length of tibia (TbL3)

46) Length of tibial spur-I (TsL3a)

47) Length of tibial spur-II (TsL3b)

48) Length of tarsus (TrL3)

G) Tergites

a) Third tergite

49) Width of light band (LT3)

50) Width of dark band (DT3)

51) Total width of tergite (WT3)

b) Fourth tergite

52) Width of light band (LT4)

53) Width of dark band (DT4)

54) Total width of tergite (WT4)

H) Sternites

a) Third sternite

55) Width of light band (LS3)

56) Width of dark band (DS3)

57) Total width of sternite (WS3)

b) Sixth sternite

58) Length or depth of sternite (LS6)

59) Width of sternite (BS6)

However, in case of Polistes hebraeus, a middle light and dark band on third and fourth tergite and on third sternite were also studied.

Statistical Analysis of Data: Biometrical data on different Vespa spp. was analysed statistically in order to calculate mean, standard deviation, standard error about means and Coefficient of Variation (Snedcor and Cochran, 1993). In case of V. auraria one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate discriminant analaysis were applied. However, in case of other Vespa spp., V. tropica, V. basalis, V auraria, V. orientalis, Polistes hebraeus and Ropalidia ferruginea data could not be analysed by analysis of variance due to less number of locatily studied. Hence, overall mean values of different morphological characteristic of Vespa spp. collected from different localities of Himachal Pradesh were compared by Duncans multiple range test and T-test and differences observed in the mean values were expressed as percentage difference (P.D.).

Multivariate Discriminant Analysis of Vespa auraria Populations: Multivariate discriminant analysis was performed on an IBMPC- AT micro computer at computer center of Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla. For the discriminant analysis, the programme DISCRIMINANT from the SPSS statistical package for the Social Sciences was utilized (Norusis, 1985). For the unweighted pair-group cluster analysis, the NTSYS-PC (Rohlf, 1987) was used with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) as described by Sneath and Sokal (1973). The analysis was made with the direct options (all characters entered in the analysis) and equal prior probabilities of classification.

The statistical analysis was performed in four phases. Only selected statistical results have been reproduced here because of the large number of characters and localities. The purpose of the first phase was to make an initial discriminant analysis of the localities and to determine how the V. auraria wasps from 10 localities could be clustered into a smaller number of biometrically similar groups. There were different regions in which measurement of all the characters for the collections were grouped by locality and entered as 10 groups in a discriminant analysis. It was followed by the reclassification of 500 individual wasps with coefficients from the analysis to get the extent to which the analysis discriminated among the localities. Wasps were assigned to the groups for which it had the highest probability of membership. With 10 groups of equal prior probability each could be correctly classified by chance alone.

For each character at each locality, the mean value was used to compute the coordinates of the centriods with respect to canonical determinant functions. The square roots of the Euclidean distances between each pair of localities were then computed from the coordinates of centroides. The similarities of the biometerics of the wasps collected at two localities are dependent upon the distances. The smaller the distance, the more similar are the biometrics of the wasps collected at two localities. A three dimensional graphs and a hierarchic UPGMA cluster analysis was made of the Euclidean distances of the localities (Sneath and Sokal, 1973) and 2 biometric groups were recognized on this basis.

In the second phases, the discrimination among the 2 biometric groups were evaluated using all the 59 characters. All the measurements of the collections were regrouped into 2 biometric groups and entered in a discriminant analysis. It was followed by the reclassification of the individual wasps into 2 biometric groups. With 2 groups of equal prior probabilities 50% of the wasps could be correctly classified by chance only.

In third phase, evaluation of the contribution of the different character for discrimination into 2 biometric groups was carried out. This was done by following two methods. Firstly by ranking of the absolute values of the standardized discrimination function coefficients and secondly by ranking the absolute values of the correlations of the 59 characters with single discriminant function. As a result of these comparisons, a reduced number of characters was selected to provide a quick method for identification of the biometric groups.

In the fourth phase, the correlations between all the localities and altitudes were determined with the means values for each of 59 character as well as the canonical discriminant functions for the 10 localities of phase one.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Multivariate Discriminant Analysis of Vespa auraria Populations: Multivariate statistical analyses were made of 59 characters of golden wasp, Vespa auraria collected from 10 different localities of Himachal Pradesh.

i) Univariate Biometrics of Vespa auraria and Correlation with Altitudes

Mouth Parts: Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.01) in various characters of mouth parts such as length of galea, maxillary palp, glossa, paraglossa, labial palp, length and breadth of hypopharynx and total length of glossa and hypopharynx in Vespa auraria samples collected from various localities of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). These results are in conformity with the earlier findings of Sharma (1996) for V. velutina samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. But Mattu and Verma (1983) could not find any significant differences (P>0.05) in different characters of tongue in bee samples from different agroclimatic zones of Himachal Pradesh.

Coefficient of variation showed high values for all the characters of mouth parts in different V. auraria samples analysed (Table 1). These results are in agreement with the earlier observations of Mattu (1982), Sharma (1996) and Sharma (2000) who also observed high values of coefficient of variation for honeybees, wasps and bumblebee samples collected from different area of Himachal Pradesh.

Statistical analysis of biometrical data showed a significant (P<0.01, P<0.05) positive correlation between altitude and length and breadth of galea, whereas, a significant (P<0.01) negative correlation was observed between altitude and length and breadth of hypopharynx and total length of glossa and hypopharynx in wasp samples from different localities of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). These observations corroborate the earlier findings of Sharma (1996) who also observed such relationship in V. velutina samples from different zones of northwest Himalayas. However, length of maxillary palp, length and breadth of glossa, length of paraglossa and labial palp of V. auraria showed no correlation with altitude (Table 1). These results are in agreement with the earlier studies of Mattu and Verma (1983), who also could not find any such relationship in bee samples from Himachal Pradesh.

Antenna: Statistical analyses of biometrical data on wasps revealed significant (P<0.01) differences in most of the parameters of antenna except the length of pedicel (Table 1). These results corroborate the earlier findings of Mattu and Verma (1983) for bee samples and Sharma (1996) for wasp samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. Such significant differences were also observed in the characters from bees from the eastern Himalayan region by Singh (1989). Recently, Sharma (2000) also reported similar significant (P<0.01) differences in different antennal characters except length of scape in bumblebees samples collected from different localities of Himachal Pradesh.

Coefficient of variation was high for scape and pedicel, but, it was low for length of flagellum and total antennal length in wasp samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). These results are in conformity with the earlier observations of Sharma (1996) for wasps from the north western Himalayan region. Similar results were also observed by Mattu (1982) and Singh (1989) for bees from western and eastern Himalayan regions respectively.

Statistical analysis of biometrical data showed a significant (P<0.01, 0.05) positve correlation between altitude and length of flagellum and total antennal length except for length of pedicel and scape (Table 1). These results are in accordance with the earlier findings of Mattu and Verma (1983) who also found significant positive correlation between altitude and all the parameters of antenna in different honey bee samples from Himachal Pradesh. But Sharma (1996, 2000) found significant negative correlation between altitude and all morphological characters of antenna except length of pedicel in the wasp and bumblebee samples from Himachal Pradesh.

T able 1: Biometrical data on different morphological characters of Vespa auraria S. collected from different localities of Himachal Pradesh.

Name of Character

Locality

Mouth Parts

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

F ratio

1.

Length of galea

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.675-1.725

1.7730.006

2.425

1.625-2.100

1.9260.019

6.957

1.525-1.925

1.7110.009

3.565

1.500-1.900

1.7340.011

4.322

1.700-1.900

1.7900.006

2.458

1.325-1.550

1.4910.009

4.292

1.600-1.820

1.7150.008

3.381

1.500-1.850

1.7310.008

3.408

1.500-2.100

1.7580.021

8.418

1.325-1.825

1.6180.021

8.961

75.036**

2.

Breadth of galea

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.600-0.850

0.7340.009

8.344

0.700-0.900

0.7850.008

6.878

0.600-0.750

0.7010.006

5.706

0.650-0.950

0.7670.011

10.169

0.600-0.800

0.6980.008

8.452

0.600-0.850

0.7130.011

10.518

0.650-0.800

0.7230.006

5.394

0.600-0.800

0.7000.006

6.285

0.600-0.900

0.7460.010

9.383

0.600-0.850

0.6890.009

8.853

14.485**

3.

Length of maxillary palp

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.350-2.900

2.6110.014

3.906

2.050-2.550

2.3310.022

6.563

2.000-2.450

2.2550.017

5.321

1.850-2.100

1.9590.010

3.471

2.050-2.400

2.2360.014

4.516

1.650-1.900

1.7730.010

4.004

1.700-2.300

2.0130.025

8.693

1.700-2.300

2.0100.024

8.606

1.850-2.900

2.2320.036

11.469

1.650-2.300

1.9190.028

10.369

127.959**

4.

Length of glossa

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.400-1.700

1.5630.011

5.054

1.350-1.750

1.4910.017

7.385

1.400-1.550

1.4980.007

3.137

1.400-1.600

1.5180.008

3.754

1.250-1.700

1.4900.018

8.456

1.000-1.300

1.1470.013

8.020

1.200-1.600

1.3830.012

6.146

1.100-1.700

1.3430.010

5.137

1.350-1.700

1.4870.011

5.110

1.000-1.450

1.2650.017

9.249

106.130**

5.

Breadth of glossa

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.200-1.450

1.2720.009

4.874

1.000-1.300

1.1780.012

7.385

1.150-1.450

1.3070.010

5.585

1.000-1.200

1.1260.009

5.861

1.000-1.350

1.1380.010

5.887

0.650-0.950

0.7800.013

12.179

0.800-1.350

1.0330.019

13.068

0.700-1.450

1.0150.025

17.536

1.000-1.450

1.2150.017

10.041

0.650-1.200

0.8680.021

17.050

119.566**

6.

Length of paraglossa

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.950-1.200

1.0630.009

5.832

0.950-1.300

1.1160.015

9.408

1.000-1.250

1.1480.009

5.313

1.000-1.250

1.1360.010

6.161

1.000-1.200

1.1110.008

5.310

0.700-1.000

0.8680.010

8.410

0.700-1.250

1.0740.016

10.893

0.950-1.200

1.0610.010

6.974

0.950-1.200

1.1080.010

6.227

0.750-1.200

0.9840.021

14.735

46.002**

7.

Length of labial palp

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.950-2.350

2.1530.013

4.226

2.750-3.000

2.8950.014

3.316

2.400-3.100

2.7940.021

5.332

2.400-2.850

2.5990.018

4.848

2.600-3.000

2.7550.015

3.883

2.100-2.300

2.2000.010

3.227

2.350-2.700

2.4930.012

3.529

2.200-2.700

2.4890.019

5.504

1.950-3.000

2.6220.041

11.022

2.100-2.750

2.3540.024

7.094

146.026**

8.

Length of hypopharynx

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.950-2.400

2.2340.018

5.819

1.800-2.700

2.1010.027

8.995

2.050-2.950

2.6890.027

7.130

2.300-2.800

2.4690.017

4.900

2.500-3.000

2.6120.026

6.928

1.550-2.100

1.7540.018

7.354

1.800-2.500

2.1330.035

11.626

1.700-2.150

2.0020.017

6.143

1.800-2.050

2.3550.038

11.380

1.550-2.150

1.9120.025

9.152

139.704**

9.

Breadth of hypopharynx

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.050-1.900

1.5850.019

8.328

1.300-1.450

1.3940.007

3.730

1.200-1.700

1.5360.021

9.765

1.000-1.300

1.1930.012

7.041

1.350-1.700

1.5810.012

5.186

1.200-1.350

1.2530.007

4.229

1.100-1.550

1.2650.014

8.063

1.100-1.450

1.2660.014

7.661

1.300-1.900

1.4210.029

14.356

1.200-1.450

1.3010.012

6.302

84.010**

10.

Total length of glossa and hypopharynx

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

3.350-4.450

3.8200.027

5.026

3.150-4.400

3.6080.038

7.483

3.900-4.450

4.2000.023

3.928

3.650-4.300

3.9800.022

3.894

3.550-4.450

4.1660.037

6.337

2.450-3.400

2.8520.027

6.626

3.150-4.100

3.5230.044

8.856

2.900-3.500

3.3420.024

5.086

3.500-4.450

3.8590.041

7.488

2.300-3.550

3.1280.042

9.430

174.648**


Antenna

11.

Length of scape

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.550-1.850

1.7570.014

5.691

1.550-2.200

1.8760.033

12.260

1.600-1.900

1.7770.009

3.714

1.650-1.900

1.7290.009

3.817

1.750-1.900

1.8160.008

3.083

1.500-1.550

1.5270.007

3.405

1.500-1.900

1.7070.015

6.092

1.750-1.900

1.8200.010

3.791

1.500-2.250

1.7920.022

8.872

1.500-1.950

1.7090.024

9.771

30.972**

12.

Length of pedicel

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.250-0.300

0.2520.003

9.523

0.250-0.250

0.2500.000

0.000

0.200-0.300

0.2510.003

9.561

0.250-0.300

0.2530.002

4.743

0.200-0.300

0.2480.002

5.645

0.250-0.250

0.2500.000

0.000

0.200-0.300

0.2580.003

7.364

0.250-0.250

0.2500.000

0.000

0.250-0.300

0.2550.003

8.235

0.250-0.250

0.2500.000

0.000

2.030

13.

Length of flagellum

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

5.250-6.750

6.2990.049

5.492

5.750-7.200

6.5230.053

5.748

4.750-6.600

6.0950.053

6.611

5.650-6.150

6.0700.015

1.713

5.000-6.250

5.9980.040

4.734

5.050-6.050

5.5850.028

3.509

5.350-6.900

6.2430.069

7.832

5.600-6.750

6.2010.042

4.805

4.750-6.900

6.0870.070

8.115

5.050-6.600

5.8990.059

7.035

24.246**

14.

Total antennal length

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

7.100-8.850

8.3000.060

5.096

7.550-9.550

8.6410.082

6.712

6.650-8.650

8.1250.062

5.366

7.700-8.350

8.0640.017

1.450

7.000-8.300

8.0120.048

4.231

6.800-7.850

7.3630.030

2.906

7.150-9.100

8.1180.093

8.117

7.650-8.850

8.2220.049

4.220

6.650-9.250

8.1360.085

7.423

6.800-8.650

7.8390.077

6.965

25.616**

Fore Wing

15.

Length of forewing

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

15.230-18.760

17.1230.145

5.980

14.900-20.000

17.9760.218

8.572

17.100-18.500

17.8580.060

2.374

16.300-18.300

17.5830.088

3.540

15.800-18.600

17.7080.089

3.535

12.900-15.600

14.0570.279

14.014

15.500-19.400

18.0260.131

5.120

16.100-19.500

17.9980.105

4.122

15.420-19.800

17.6420.144

5.787

13.500-19.500

16.3170.419

18.140

38.749**

16.

Breadth of forewing

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

4.100-5.100

4.7640.040

5.919

3.950-6.200

4.9910.099

14.065

4.000-5.250

4.9050.029

4.179

4.350-4.900

4.6070.023

3.494

4.400-5.400

4.7920.036

5.369

3.650-4.250

3.9120.020

3.553

4.200-5.200

4.7600.038

5.672

4.150-5.100

4.8340.036

5.295

3.950-6.000

4.8290.064

9.380

3.650-5.150

4.4320.073

11.642

36.425**

17.

Length of radial cell

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

6.350-4.750

4.1910.040

6.680

3.500-5.400

4.4020.092

14.766

3.850-4.400

4.2410.019

3.230

3.200-4.200

4.0550.024

4.148

3.750-4.350

4.177.023

3.878

3.150-3.600

3.3830.018

3.665

3.550-4.400

4.0280.034

5.958

3.650-4.400

4.1230.027

4.535

3.500-5.250

4.2790.057

9.441

3.150-4.300

3.7950.056

10.355

42.304**

18.

Breadth of radial cell

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.900-1.050

0.9840.007

4.776

0.850-1.250

1.0130.019

13.524

0.950-1.050

0.9890.005

3.437

0.9001.000

0.9560.006

4.184

0.950-1.050

0.9990.006

4.004

0.800-0.900

0.8480.002

1.179

0.900-1.050.

1.0060.006

4.075

0.900-1.150

0.9920.007

5.241

0.850-1.250

0.9920.012

8.568

0.800-1.150

0.9280.012

9.159

27.963**

19.

Angle 19

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

63.000-71.000

66.8800.345

3.645

58.000-72.000

65.4200.542

5.860

60.000-70.000

65.3000.392

4.254

58.000-72.000

67.3200.466

4.898

60.000-75.000

67.2400.579

6.088

58.000-78.000

66.6400.588

6.240

59.000-73.000

66.4600.495

5.266

61.000-71.000

65.9000.423

4.538

58.000-72.000

65.0000.480

5.220

61.000-74.000

66.2400.438

4.670

2.881*

20.

Angle 20

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

67.000-78.000

72.5000.384

3.740

62.000-80.000

71.8600.636

6.255

59.000-80.000

73.1000.623

6.024

61.000-77.000

70.5400.627

6.282

66.000-82.000

73.5000.538

5.099

62.000-76.000

69.9400.528

5.337

67.000-79.000

72.4800.472

4.608

67.000-82.000

73.8800.543

5.193

69.000-80.000

73.1800.406

3.920

65.000-82.000

71.7800.562

5.532

5.595**

21.

Angle 21

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

110.000-127.000

123.4600.582

3.334

119.000-130.000

124.9200.358

2.025

120.000-130.000

123.8800.324

1.849

117.000-126.000

122.5600.408

2.355

120.000-130.000

124.5400.327

1.858

114.000-126.000

121.6800.468

2.720

122.000-128.000

125.1400.241

1.360

118.000-126.000

121.8200.364

2.115

117.000-130.000

123.6000.441

2.521

117.000-126.000

121.7600.372

2.160

10.997**

22.

Angle 22

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

17.000-22.000

19.3400.247

9.022

17.000-25.000

19.8600.284

10.120

17.000-24.000

20.3600.266

9.243

17.000-23.000

19.7600.217

7.758

17.000-24.000

20.7400.247

8.423

15.000-21.000

19.1600.256

9.451

16.000-22.000

19.7400.210

7.507

17.000-24.000

20.2600.237

8.272

17.000-23.000

20.1400.257

9.026

15.000-24.000

19.9600.300

10.616

3.470*

23.

Angle 23

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

100.000-112.000

106.6400.469

3.111

99.000-117.000

106.3400.880

5.854

89.000-114.000

105.2000.665

4.470

97.000-114.000

106.2200.498

3.317

101.000-117.000

106.1200.582

3.876

102.000-118.000

109.0400.541

3.505

101.000-114.000

106.1440.595

3.965

100.000-112.000

104.0800.651

4.425

99.000-116.000

107.3200.704

4.635

92.000-116.000

106.3600.660

4.401

4.095*

24.

Angle 24

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

78.000-104.000

92.3800.799

6.114

82.000-96.000

89.0400.611

4.855

81.000-105.000

92.7000.907

6.920

83.000-104.000

91.9800.662

5.092

87.000-100.000

92.4800.464

3.544

83.000-105.000

91.8400.944

7.266

82.000-102.000

95.1400.886

6.582

81.000-109.000

90.3600.836

6.540

78.000-104.000

91.4400.822

6.358

81.000-109.000

90.7200.899

7.003

4.164*

25.

Angle 25

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

92.000-108.000

99.0800.549

3.836

94.000-106.000

100.4800.610

4.294

95.000-108.000

100.9400.577

4.044

97.000-109.000

103.3200.424

2.903

92.000-109.000

99.0600.532

3.795

94.000-107.000

99.8200.564

3.995

98.000-106.000

101.8600.777

5.391

94.000-111.000

103.3200.563

3.854

94.000-108.000

100.8800.614

4.303

94.000-108.000

101.4600.524

3.650

6.906**

26.

Angle 26

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

47.000-68.000

57.4600.689

8.395

52.000-69.000

59.9000.573

6.767

51.000-62.000

57.3800.445

5.487

51.000-65.000

57.4800.473

5.821

50.000-61.000

57.2200.511

6.319

49.000-68.000

62.8600.641

7.216

57.000-65.000

59.9200.366

4.315

49.000-94.000

56.1800.501

6.308

52.000-62.000

57.3600.384

4.735

49.000-72.000

59.0600.903

10.814

12.028**

27.

Angle 27

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

10.000-15.000

12.9600.189

10.339

11.000-15.000

13.1600.177

9.506

10.000-15.000

13.1600.195

10.455

12.000-17.000

13.8600.171

8.744

11.000-20.000

13.8400.259

13.244

10.000-18.000

14.7200.232

11.154

13.000-17.000

14.4600.177

8.637

10.000-16.000

13.0600.206

14.464

10.000-17.000

13.0200.226

12.265

9.000-18.000

13.4000.304

16.029

7.913**

28.

Angle 28

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

107.000-126.000

115.2200.662

4.064

112.000-136.000

120.3400.698

4.100

110.000-126.000

117.1400.696

4.203

110.000-123.000

117.1200.580

3.504

112.000-124.000

118.9800.405

2.404

110.000-131.000

118.4800.780

4.658

115.000-124.000

118.5800.492

2.936

115.000-126.000

119.3400.542

3.252

110.000-126.000

116.6600.600

3.639

111.000-131.000

119.3200.709

4.200

6.078**

29.

Angle 29

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

25.000-45.000

33.4800.758

16.003

25.000-43.000

32.9800.824

17.665

25.000-51.000

36.6400.786

15.169

27.000-50.000

36.9800.913

17.460

24.000-46.000

35.0800.667

13.443

28.000-43.000

34.9200.609

12.339

29.000-47.000

36.8600.674

12.924

28.000-55.000

41.9600.872

14.699

27.000-51.000

34.6000.907

18.537

28.000-52.000

37.5200.905

17.054

10.328**

Hind Wing

30.

Length of hindwing

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

9.550-11.400

10.7360.062

4.098

10.100-13.000

11.2250.097

6.111

10.700-12.200

11.6860.067

4.039

10.150-11.400

10.8380.048

3.164

10.000-12.300

11.2450.069

4.339

8.350-9.700

8.9570.050

3.929

9.900-11.950

10.8420.088

5.727

10.400-12.200

11.4330.055

3.393

9.750-13.000

11.2270.100

6.324

8.450-12.100

10.4050.182

12.378

72.025**

31.

Breadth of hindwing

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.750-2.350

2.0310.021

7.188

1.800-2.600

2.1660.042

13.619

2.000-2.350

2.2720.024

7.438

1.900-2.200

2.0290.010

3.647

1.800-2.350

2.2210.024

7.564

1.500-1.800

1.6710.012

5.086

2.000-2.400

2.2560.017

5.274

1.800-2.350

2.1560.019

6.168

1.900-2.550

2.1390.023

7.667

1.550-2.350

1.9630.038

13.805

51.192**

32.

Length of basal portion of radial vein

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.500-3.400

3.0700.033

7.557

2.750-4.400

3.4820.063

12.808

2.850-3.350

3.1400.019

4.331

2.900-3.150

3.1010.018

4.095

2.950-3.500

3.2040.018

4.057

2.300-2.700

2.4980.016

4.643

2.600-3.350

3.1440.025

5.566

2.850-3.450

3.2490.022

4.863

2.850-3.650

3.1290.033

7.382

2.300-3.450

2.9160.059

14.300

53.643**

33.

Length of apical portion of radial vein

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.950-1.250

1.0910.012

7.699

1.000-1.500

1.1840.018

10.472

1.000-1.400

1.1680.015

8.989

0.950-1.150

1.0520.009

6.083

1.000-1.250

1.1170.013

8.325

0.950-1.050

1.0080.005

3.768

1.000-1.250

1.1200.009

5.892

0.850-1.250

1.0970.015

9.845

0.950-1.300

1.1360.019

11.883

0.950-1.250

1.0680.013

8.520

15.630**

34.

Length of discoidal vein

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.850-2.400

2.1320.020

6.754

2.200-2.800

2.3270.036

11.087

1.950-2.400

2.2330.013

4.228

1.900-2.200

2.0390.010

3.433

1.900-2.450

2.1930.017

5.471

1.600-1.850

1.7620.010

3.916

1.800-2.450

2.2680.018

5.643

1.850-2.550

2.2150.021

6.591

1.950-2.350

2.1810.015

4.768

1.600-2.450

2.0260.039

13.672

53.122**

35.

Length of indica vein

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.900-1.200

1.0940.014

8.775

1.000-1.400

1.1510.015

9.296

1.100-1.350

1.2080.010

6.043

0.950-1.150

1.0610.010

6.597

0.950-1.250

1.1320.013

8.127

0.900-1.050

0.9610.005

3.642

1.000-1.250

1.1300.010

6.283

0.950-1.300

1.1120.013

8.183

0.950-1.400

1.1170.017

10.832

0.900-1.250

1.0490.013

8.960

24.973**

36.

Number of hamuli

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

24.000-40.000

30.3400.587

13.688

30.000-61.000

43.8400.990

15.967

25.000-32.000

28.0600.213

5.359

27.000-38.000

33.1800.409

8.710

22.000-32.000

26.8400.337

8.885

19.000-29.000

26.3800.354

9.499

25.000-33.000

29.2400.341

8.248

26.000-36.000

30.5000.346

8.009

29.000-40.000

32.2800.660

14.464

26.000-35.000

27.7800.498

12.663

95.807**

37.

Extent of hamuli

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.250-1.800

1.5160.018

8.311

1.400-2.150

1.7630.030

12.081

1.400-1.750

1.5740.012

5.273

1.350-1.700

1.5120.013

6.084

1.350-1.850

1.5870.016

6.931

1.100-1.350

1.2350.009

5.101

1.140-1.750

1.5830.017

7.454

1.350-1.800

1.6430.015

6.390

1.350-2.150

1.5730.021

9.408

1.100-1.800

1.4630.034

16.267

47.160**

Fore Leg

38.

Length of trochanter

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.950-1.050

1.0040.006

3.884

1.000-1.100

1.0540.014

9.487

0.950-1.100

1.0120.009

6.027

1.050-1.100

1.0800.004

2.500

1.100-1.250

1.1790.002

4.240

1.000-1.100

1.0500.005

3.047

1.000-1.100

1.0320.004

2.713

1.000-1.200

1.0620.007

4.613

0.900-1.100

1.0360.007

5.019

1.000-1.200

1.0680.006

3.745

44.259**

39.

Length of femur

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

3.500-4.100

3.8790.026

4.743

3.500-4.500

4.1340.067

11.441

3.650-4.250

4.0240.024

4.249

3.650-4.450

3.9950.028

5.006

3.650-4.350

4.1120.022

3.696

3.300-3.650

3.4920.011

2.262

3.550-4.250

3.9270.030

5.398

3.650-4.300

4.0540.029

5.056

3.500-4.300

3.9010.034

6.254

3.350-4.300

3.9000.051

9.230

26.190**

40.

Length of tibia

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.700-3.250

3.0690.022

4.952

2.950-4.100

3.5040.050

10.159

2.850-3.600

3.1850.020

4.427

3.050-3.650

3.2290.017

3.716

2.850-3.750

3.288.026

5.656

2.650-2.900

2.7850.011

2.692

2.750-3.700

3.3120.037

7.850

2.900-3.500

3.2520.023

5.043

2.800-4.000

3.2030.035

7.805

2.700-3.200

3.0890.040

9.226

38.072**

41.

Length of tibial spur

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.900-1.200

1.1010.011

6.811

0.900-1.450

1.1900.016

9.495

0.850-1.100

1.0310.013

8.632

0.950-1.250

1.1180.011

7.245

0.950-1.300

1.1670.011

6.940

1.000-1.100

1.0450.004

2.966

1.100-1.250

1.1470.009

5.666

0.950-1.300

1.1860.010

6.078

0.900-1.200

1.0590.015

9.726

1.000-1.300

1.1310.013

7.957

24.210**

42.

Length of tarsus

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

3.600-4.200

3.9210.020

3.647

3.500-5.000

4.2140.068

11.366

3.600-4.350

3.7470.024

4.456

3.750-4.400

4.1060.026

4.456

3.550-4.250

4.0250.026

4.521

3.400-3.750

3.5310.009

1.869

3.700-4.600

4.1740.027

4.575

3.700-4.750

4.1150.032

5.492

3.550-4.450

3.9090.038

6.804

3.400-4.300

3.9010.048

8.741

35.401**

Hind Leg

43.

Length of trochanter

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.450-1.550

1.5080.005

2.387

1.450-2.000

1.6270.024

10.510

1.300-1.600

1.5010.008

3.930

1.300-1.550

1.5100.008

3.642

1.450-1.650

1.5230.007

3.080

1.100-1.250

1.2090.006

3.391

1.450-1.550

1.5050.006

2.591

1.500-1.600

1.5440.005

2.137

1.300-1.750

1.5200.016

7.302

1.100-1.600

1.3900.025

12.877

71.561**

44.

Length of femur

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

4.050-4.950

4.5580.032

5.002

3.900-5.550

4.6490.058

8.883

4.350-5.000

4.7780.022

3.223

4.250-4.750

4.5360.002

3.483

4.300-5.050

4.7700.021

3.060

3.700-4.500

3.8530.018

3.218

4.250-5.100

4.7080.039

5.904

3.950-5.000

4.8100.026

3.866

4.050-5.400

4.6550.044

6.702

3.700-5.000

4.3330.066

10.777

56.250**

45.

Length of tibia

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

4.350-4.600

4.9580.043

6.091

4.200-6.100

4.9410.070

9.977

4.550-5.450

5.0240.025

3.582

4.600-4.950

4.7910.015

2.233

4.700-5.700

4.8720.032

4.659

3.800-4.450

4.1090.020

3.407

4.500-5.900

5.0510.044

6.157

4.400-5.450

5.1080.026

3.582

4.350-6.000

4.9450.050

7.219

3.850-5.050

4.6290.069

10.563

45.083**

46.

Length of tibial spur-I

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.600-2.150

1.9100.020

7.225

1.700-2.450

2.0030.030

10.683

1.750-2.300

1.9550.019

6.854

3.700-4.200

3.9950.019

3.429

1.700-2.150

1.8860.012

4.665

1.500-1.750

1.5980.008

3.692

1.700-2.250

2.0610.025

8.588

1.700-2.150

2.0430.011

3.964

1.750-2.450

2.5290.123

34.361

1.500-2.150

1.8260.033

12.705

240.600**

47.

Length of tibial spur-II

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.100-1.350

1.2240.011

6.617

1.050-1.800

1.3700.027

13.722

1.100-1.450

1.2880.015

7.996

1.000-1.500

1.2410.019

10.797

1.200-1.450

1.2610.009

4.837

1.000-1.100

1.0610.005

3.204

1.100-1.550

1.3250.018

9.509

1.200-1.400

1.2740.007

4.003

1.050-1.450

1.2900.018

10.000

1.000-1.400

1.1970.019

11.361

27.046**

48.

Length of tarsus

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

7.300-8.750

8.1440.049

4.248

7.700-9.400

9.0180.044

3.481

7.250-8.800

8.1150.048

4.140

1.600-8.350

8.0340.025

2.178

7.500-8.750

8.1740.033

2.826

6.300-7.100

6.6230.029

3.095

7.000-8.900

8.0840.076

6.630

7.300-8.800

8.4710.033

2.774

7.300-9.100

8.3470.070

5.931

6.350-8.750

7.6350.128

11.879

102.308**

Third Tergite

49.

Width of light band

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.700-1.850

1.1300.035

21.858

0.750-2.150

1.2550.050

28.286

0.850-1.800

1.1260.031

17.927

1.200-1.800

1.5810.024

11.638

0.850-1.600

1.3460.029

15.304

0.800-1.100

0.9660.013

9.627

1.500-3.400

1.4220.029

14.486

0.800-1.350

1.1270.019

11.978

0.750-1.350

1.3270.049

25.923

0.750-1.350

1.0500.022

14.857

32.362**

50.

Width of dark band

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.650-2.850

2.2330.039

12.360

1.400-3.000

2.2670.081

25.276

1.800-2.750

5.3900.029

3.821

1.500-2.000

1.7540.024

9.578

1.900-2.500

2.1720.030

9.622

1.100-1.850

1.5740.028

12.515

0.850-2.000

1.9780.061

21.638

2.000-2.500

2.2470.030

9.345

1.500-3.000

2.2410.071

22.489

1.100-2.500

1.9540.066

24.053

26.670**

51.

Total width of tergite

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.850-3.700

3.3250.032

6.706

2.950-4.200

3.5300.062

12.379

3.200-4.000

3.5880.031

6.127

2.750-3.600

3.2770.028

11.231

3.000-3.850

3.5150.025

5.007

2.050-2.900

2.5320.028

7.938

3.000-3.500

3.296.024

5.248

3.000-3.850

3.4130.037

7.647

2.750-4.200

3.5480.050

10.005

2.050-3.950

3.0620.086

19.790

50.743**

Fourth Tergite

52.

Width of light band

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.700-1.900

1.3710.049

25.091

1.100-2.300

1.5790.042

18.682

1.400-2.000

1.6620.023

9.747

1.100-1.800

1.5330.021

9.719

1.300-1.750

1.5910.016

7.120

0.900-1.700

1.1820.024

14.297

1.300-1.950

1.6330.025

11.022

1.250-1.850

1.5510.034

15.409

0.700-1.900

1.4860.046

21.938

0.900-1.700

1.3900.046

23.165

17.954**

53.

Width of dark band

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.200-2.050

1.6580.027

11.338

1.200-2.500

1.6840.045

18.883

1.400-1.850

1.6220.017

7.400

1.200-1.500

1.3350.014

7.265

1.300-1.900

1.5950.020

8.777

1.100-1.500

1.2600.008

4.365

1.200-1.800

1.3830.025

12.725

0.900-2.000

1.7000.024

10.058

1.200-2.050

1.4940.032

15.127

1.100-2.000

1.4960.041

19.251


31.770**

54.

Total width of tergite

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.200-3.500

3.0500.041

9.606

2.550-4.000

3.2290.063

13.905

3.000-3.550

3.2840.023

4.933

2.400-3.150

2.8380.027

6.730

2.350-3.500

3.0780.040

9.226

2.150-3.000

2.4390.026

7.421

2.750-3.250

3.0280.021

4.986

2.200-3.550

3.2130.031

6.784

2.200-3.500

2.9830.049

11.632

2.150-3.450

2.8470.065

16.051

35.582**

Third Sternite

55.

Width of light band

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

1.250-1.700

1.5180.024

11.198

1.000-1.950

1.3610.028

14.621

1.200-1.650

1.4840.014

6.805

1.150-1.750

1.4870.920

9.482

1.200-1.650

1.4130.016

8.067

1.000-1.300

1.1260.011

7.193

1.250-1.900

1.5320.025

11.684

1.250-1.850

1.4400.023

11.319

1.060-1.650

1.4630.020

9.432

1.000-1.850

1.3180.029

15.781

30.919**

56.

Width of dark band

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

0.750-1.100

0.9030.014

10.631

0.750-1.250

0.9300.019

14.193

0.700-1.100

0.9130.014

10.514

0.750-1.000

0.8480.012

9.669

0.8501.100

0.9510.009

6.834

0.600-0.850

0.7260.010

9.504

0.550-1.300

0.7620.014

12.860

0.850-1.150

0.9880.011

7.995

0.750-1.200

0.9000.018

14.111

0.550-1.150

0.8780.024

19.134

30.686**

57.

Total width of sternite

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.250-3.000

2.4240.022

6.518

1.850-2.950

2.3170.040

12.257

2.200-2.550

2.4050.011

3.326

2.100-2.550

2.3290.018

5.538

2.150-2.550

2.3600.016

4.915

1.650-2.050

1.8510.016

6.266

2.050-2.500

2.3010.022

6.692

2.250-2.850

2.4300.025

7.325

2.050-2.950

2.4120.029

8.374

1.700-2.850

2.2010.048

15.265

41.438**

Sixth Sternite

58.

Length or depth of stenite

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

2.250-2.600

2.4790.027

7.745

2.200-3.050

2.6970.041

10.715

2.400-2.900

2.6310.015

4.028

2.800-3.250

3.0700.016

3.583

2.400-2.700

2.5920.013

3.433

2.100-2.250

2.1860.006

1.967

2.400-2.750

2.5940.019

5.088

2.300-2.800

2.6490.017

4.530

2.450-3.600

2.8130.039

9.811

2.100-2.800

2.4260.033

9.727

86.352**

59.

Width of sternite

R.V.

XS.E.

C.V.

3.100-4.100

3.6680.037

7.115

3.000-4.250

3.5380.064

12.719

3.100-3.850

3.3780.027

5.654

5.100-5.700

5.4700.024

3.144

3.050-3.800

3.2730.036

7.852

2.750-3.250

2.8750.020

4.869

3.400-4.100

3.7560.037

7.002

2.800-3.500

3.2950.063

13.414

3.100-5.500

3.6200.037

7.154

2.250-3.350

3.0070.038

8.846

313.457**

R. V. = Range of variation.

XS.E. = Mean Standard error about mean.

C.V. = Coefficient of Variation.

* = Significant, P<0.05.

** = Highly significant P<0.01

All the mean values are in mm. except wing venation angles which are in degrees.

Forewing: Analysis of Variance showed significant differences (P<0.01) in length and breadth of forewing, length and breadth of radial cell and all wing venation angles in different wasp samples collected from Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). Similar findings were also reported by Sharma (1996) in V. velutina samples from Himachal Pradesh. These results also corroborate the earlier findings of Mattu and Verma (1984a) and Singh (1989), who also found significant differences in length and breadth of forewings and all the wing venation angles in bee samples colleced from the western and eastern Himalayan regions respectively. Sharma (2000) also found similar results for Bombus tunicatus samples from Himachal Pradesh.

Coefficient of variation was low for length of forewing, breadth of radial cell and most of the wing venation angles except 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27 and 29 (Table 1). These results support the earlier findings of Mattu (1982) and Singh (1989) for bee samples from western and eastern Himalayan regions.

Correlation data showed a significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between altitude and angle 19, whereas, it was positively correlated (P<0.05) with wing venation angle 26 (Table 1). However, Mattu and Verma (1984 a) reported a significant positive correlation between altitude and most of the wing venation angles in bee samples from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. But Sharma (1996) reported significant negative correlation between altitude and length of forewing, radial cell and angle 20, whereas, it was positively correlated with breadth of radial cell and other wing venation angles in wasps collected from Himachal Pradesh.

Hindwing: Statistical analysis of biometrical data revealed significant (P<0.01) differences in all the characters of hindwings of V. auraria samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). These results corroborate the earlier findings of Sharma (1996), who also found significant differences in various V. velutina samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. Similar variations have also been reported earlier in honeybee and bumblebee samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh (Mattu and Verma, 1984a; Sharma, 2000).

Coefficient of variation was high for all the characters of hindwing (Table 1). These findings are in agreement with the earlier findings of Sharma (1996, 2000), who also reported high values of coefficient of variation for hindwings except its length in wasp and bumblebees collected from Himachal Pradesh. But, Mattu (1982) and Singh (1989) have reported low values of coefficient of variations for hindwing characters of honeybees from western and eastern Himalayan regions.

In present investigations, altitude showed a significant positive correlation with number of hamuli (Table 1). However, Sharma (1996) reported a significant (P<0.01) negative correlation between altitude and length of basal and apical portion of radial vein and length of discoidal vein, but a significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was stablished between altitude and length and breadth of hindwing in V. velutina samples from North West Himalayas.

Foreleg: Statistical analyses of biometrical data revealed significant differences (P<0.01) in all the parameters of foreleg in V. auraria samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). Similar variations were also observed in foreleg characters by Sharma (1996, 2000) in wasps and bumblebee samples collected from different parts of the north west Himalayan region.

Statistical analyses revealed high values of coefficient of variation for all the morphological characters of foreleg, thus indicating heterogeneity in wasp populations.

Altitude showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) with length of tibia and tarsus but it was negatively correlated (P<0.01) with length of trochanter in wasp populations from different agroclimatic zones of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). But, Sharma (1996) showed a significant negative (P<0.01) correlation between altitude and foreleg charcters in V. velutina from Himachal Pradesh.

Hindleg: Analyses of variance revealed significant differences (P<0.01) in all characters of hindleg of Vespa auraria samples (Table 1). These results are in conformity with the earlier findings of Sharma (1996) for wasp populations; Mattu and Verma (1984a) for honeybees and Sharma (2000) for bumblebees populations from different regions of Himachal Pradesh.

All the biometric characters of hindleg showed high values of coefficient of variation in V. auraria populations of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). Similar results were also reported by earlier authers for wasps (Sharma, 1996) and bumble bee (Sharma, 2000) populations from Himachal Pradesh.

Correlation analyses showed a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation between altitude and length of trochanter and tibia in wasp populations from different parts of Himachal Pradesh (Table 1). These results do not agree with the earlier observations of some of the investigators who established a significant positve correlation between altitude and different hindleg characters for wasps (Sharma, 1996), honey bees (Singh, 1989) and bumble bees (Sharma, 2000).

Tergites: Statistical analysis of biometrical data showed significant differences in all the characters of third and fourth tergites in wasp samples from Himachal pradesh (Table 1). Similar results were also reported by Sharma (1996) for Vespa sp.; Mattu and Verma (1984b) and Singh 1989 for honeybees and Sharma (2000) for bumblebee samples from different zones of the Himalayan region.

Present results showed high values of coefficient of variation for third and fourth tergites in wasp samples collected from different localities of Himachal Pradesh. These results corroborate the earlier observations of Mattu (1982) and Singh (1989) for bee samples from western and eastern Himalayan region respectively and Sharma (1996) for wasp samples from Himachal Pradesh.

Altitude showed a significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with width of light band as well as dark band of third tergite and width of dark band of fourth tergite. Sharma (1996) also found a significant negative correlation between altitude and different characters of third and fourth tergites in Vespa velutina samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. However, Mattu and Verma (1984b) and Sharma (2000) established a positive correlation between altitude and tergite characters of honeybees and bumblebees sample from Himalayan region.

Sternites: Biometrical data showed significant variations (P<0.01) in all the characters of sternites in V. auraria samples collected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. Similar variations were also observed in Vespa velutina (Sharma, 1996); Apis cerana (Mattu and Verma, 1984b, Singh, 1989) and Bombus tunicatus Sharma (2000) samples collected from different zones of Himalayan region.

Coefficient of variation was high for all characters of third and sixth sternites of Vespa auraria (Table 1). Some of the earlier investigators have also reported high values of coefficient of variation for Vespa velutina, Apis cerana and Bombus tunicatus samples from different region of Himachal Pradesh (Sharma, 1996; Mattu and Verma, 1984b, Singh, 1989 and Sharma, 2000).

Altitude showed a significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with width of dark band and total width of third sternite, however, a significant (P<0.01) positive correlation was established between altitude and width of sixth sternite (Table 1). However, Sharma (1996) reported a significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between altitude and width of dark band as well as total width of third sternite for wasp samples collected from different regions of north west Himalayas. Recently, Sharma (2000) also reported a significant negative correlation between altitude and width of sixth sternite in Bombus tunicatus samples from Himachal Pradesh.

Univariate biometrics and correlation analyses of biometrical data on golden wasp, Vespa auraria sampled from different agroclimatic zones of Himachal Pradesh. That most of morphological characters pertaining to length of maxillary palp, glossa, paraglossa, hypopharynx and total length of glossa and hypopharynx and breadth of glossa and hypopharynx of mouth parts, length of scape and pedicel of antenna, length and breadth of forewing and hindwing, length of trochanter and femur of foreleg and hindleg etc. showed a negative relationship with the altitudinal gradient. These results are in confirmily with Allens Rule that protruding body parts are relatively shorter in the colder then warmer climates.

ii) Geographic Populations/Ecotypes of V. auraria S. Multivariate discriminant function analysis : (DFA) clustered all 10 wasp samples into 2 biometric groups. The 2 samples from northeast of Himachal Pradesh formed one biometric group arbitrarly named NEHP and 8 samples from southwest Himachal Pradesh formed the second group arbitrarily named as SWHP. NEHP is separated from SWHP primarily on discriminant canonical function 1. But the morphometric gap between the groups was quite distinct. Samples from localities along the boundary between the groups did not appear to form a transitional cline. For example, wasps from locality 3 taken at a lower elevation in Himachal Pradesh did not cluster with wasps from locality 7 also at lower elevations. Similarly, wasps from locality 7 located at higher elevation did not cluster with wasps from locality 8, also at a high elevation.

Although no striking physiographic feature separates the regions of these biometric groups yet a major climatic boundary does found a barrier. Analyses of future collection along this climatic boundary will be necessary to discover where the transition from one biometric type to other occurs or if the two groups co-exist symparically. In the latter case, an appropriate taxonomic action would be in order.

The two biometric groups were distinguished by significant differences in 46 of the 59 characters. Wasps of NEHP group were larger, on the average than those of SWHP in most of length and breadth measurements, exceptions were character 11 (length of scape), 12 (length of pedicel), 16 (breadth of forewing), 20 (angle 20), 22 (angle 22), 24 (angle 24), 26 (angle 26), 27 (angle 27), 29 (angle 29), 30 (length of hindwing), 31 (breadth of hindwing), 33 (length of apical portion of radial vein), 35 (length of indica vein), 37 (extent of hamuli), 38 (length of trochanter), 41 ( length of tibal spur of foreleg), 43 (length of trochanter of hindwing), 50 (width of dark band of third tergite), 52 (width of light band of fourth tergite), 53 (width of dark band of fourth tergite), 55 (width of light band) and 56 (width of dark band of third sternite), in which V. auraria of NEHP group are smaller. Wasp of NEHP group also had larger depth of sixth sternite and width of sixth sternite. However, characters of tongue are complex. Breadth of galea and breadth of hypopharynx were not different between the groups, length of galea, length palp and total length of glossa and hypopharynx were larger in NEHP group.

iii) Taxonomically Significant Morphometric Characters: Univariate and multivariate discriminant analysis of 59 characters of V. auraria wasps collected from Himachal Pradesh revealed that following 3 characters could be used as the important discriminators for distinguishing different biometric groups of wasps (Table 1). These pertain to hind wing (number of hamuli) and sternites (length and width of sixth sternite). Singh (1989) has identified 12 morphological characters, i.e. forewing (length of radial cell and apical portion of radial cell), hindwing (length of hindwing and jugal to be) and abdomen (width of light and dark bands of third and fourth tergites, total width of third and fourth tergites, length of wax mirror, depth of sixth sternite) as the important discriminators for classifying bees from Himalayan region, whereas, Verma et al. (1994) found only 2 morphological characters viz. length of hindwing and length of wax mirror on third sternite as important discriminators for classifying bees from western Himalayan region. Singh (1989), Sharma (1995) found 16 characters helpful in discriminating biometric groups of bees from the Hindu Kush Himalayas, These results also corroborate the finding of Sharma (1996) for V. velutina, who found 3 characters pertain to hindwing (length of hindwing ) and sternites (length and width of sixth sternite). Sharma (2000) found 3 characters viz. extent of hamuli of hindwing and length of dark band of third and fourth tergites useful for discriminating biometric groups of bumble bees samples from Himachal Pradesh.

2. Biometric Comparison of Vespa spp.: Comparative biometrical studies showed all morphological except, length of scape; wing venation anlge 19, 24, 25, 26; tibial spur II, width of light band of third and fourth the tergite and length or depth of sixthe sternite were significantly greater in V. tropica and V. auraria than V. auraria, V. basalis and V. orientalis. But a few characters like length of paraglossa, length of labial palp, total length of glossa and hypopharynx; wing venation angle 19, 24, 26, 27, 28; length and breadth of hindwing; length of basal portion of radial vein, length of discoidal vein, extent of hamuli of hindwing; length of trochanter, length of femur, length of tarsus of foreleg; length of tibal spur II of hindleg, etc., were significantly higher in V. basalis and V. orientalis than V. auraria. These results corroborate the earlier findings of Sharma (1996) for different Vespa sp. collected from Himachal Pradesh.

CONCLUSION: In this work of comprehensive biometrical studies on hymenopteran, especially members of family vespidae viz. Vespa auraria collected from 10 localities, V. tropica from 3 localities,V. basalis from 4 localities, V. orientalis, Polistes hebraeus and Ropalidia ferruginea from one locality respectively sampled from different agroclimatic zones of Himachal Pradesh, situated in the lap of north west Himalayas, the study revealed the following trend in the body size of different wasps and hornets:

V.tropica>V. auraria> V. orientalis> V. basalis.

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