Traditional Usage of Ethno-medicinal Plants of Sikandra Hill Range in Mandi District of Himachal Pradesh, India

Gulshan Kumar1* and Hem Chander2

1 & 2 Division Botany, Department of Bio-Sciences, Career Point University Hamirpur,

Himachal Pradesh- 176041, INDIA

* Correspondence: E-mail: sharmagulshan1980@gmail.com

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33980/ajabs.2019.v07i02.006

(Received 07 Sep, 2019; Accepted 16 Dec, 2019; Published 27 Dec, 2019)

ABSTRACT: The present paper deals with the documentation of field observations on traditional use of medicinal and aromatic plants by the inhabitants of area of Sikandra Hill range of Mandi districts of Himachal Pradesh in North-Western Himalaya. These hills range are inhabited by different ethnic groups. A large number of plants of local flora are used to cure various ailments of human and livestock. First hand information about 88 plants belonging to 41 families was recorded by conducting extensive field surveys during 2018-2019. The highest number of ethno-medicinal plants was recorded from the family Brassicaceae (8 species) followed by Cucerbitaceae (8 species), Leguminosae (6 species) Rosaceae (5 species) and Rutaceae (5 species). This study documents valuable information for traditional remedies and contributes to the usage of medicinal plants in the study area.

Keywords: Ehtnic groups; Ethno-medicinal plants; Mandi; Sikandra hill and Traditional usage.

INTRODUCTION: Indian Himalayan region is enriched with unique location, geography and culture.1 It is one amongst the biodiversity hotspots. 2 It is harbors more than 9000 plant species, of which nearly 33 % are endemic.3 A large number of studies on medicinal and aromatic plants have been carried out in the Indian H Region.4-6 However, in particular Pradesh, such studies are incomplete and mainly focused on inventory.7-15 Some workers have mentioned medicinal uses of plants in ethnobotanical notes, floristic and biodiversity studies.16-23 However, in particular of Himachal Pradesh, such studies are incomplete and mainly focused on inventory mentioned medicinal uses of plants in ethnobotanical notes, floristic and biodiversity studies and alternative for primary health care system.24-37

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sikander hills are situated in Shivalik hills zone of North Western Himalaya and is located in district Mandi of Himachal Pradesh (India). This area is characterized by temperature ranging between -10 0C to 250C. Precipitation occurs in the form of snow and rainfall. The altitude of this range is 7000 feet. The vegetation of this area chiefly comprises of deodar, silver fir, chir pine and oak. Greater part of it consists of rich grass slopes. It is rich in lichen flora.38-40 Extensive field surveys were conducted in various locations of Sikandra hill of district Mandi of Himachal Pradesh during the study period.

Prior to the visit to research sites, a questionnaire was designed and pre-tested to find out if it actually worked. Revisions needed as a result of this pre-test were noted and undertaken in the following day of the visit. Focus groups were held with key informants and others in each household. The traditional usage of plant resources were learned with both the questionnaire and through participatory techniques. Participation was focused on learning how people gather plant material. The ethno-medicinal importance of the collected plants containing the information about the vernacular name of the plants, part used and medicinal use were recorded through detailed discussion with local people, traditional healers, Kohlies and gujjars. The plants were enlisted depending upon the information collected along with their traditional use reported in the literature.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The results of the study are presented in Table 1. The families of plant species from the study area are arranged in alphabetical order. For each species, scientific name, family, vernacular name, part used, traditional mode of its use as edible, fodder, religious and medicinal as well as diseases treated are provided. Each species is compared with previously reported literature for their ethno-medicinal usage.

A total of 88 plant species in 41 families were documented for the treatment of various chronic ailments in the studied area. The local people and traditional healers were using these plants to treat various diseases of human as well as animals like Astringent, Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems, Skin problems, asthma, body pain, bone fracture, cholera, cold, conception, constipation, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, healing wounds, high blood pressure, improving appetite, indigestion, influenza, joint pain, kidney stones, leucorrhea, malaria, measles, mouth ulcers, piles, pneumonia, purify blood, respiratory disorders, rheumatic pain, skin and eye infections, stomach worms, toothache and whooping cough.

Table 1: Ethnomedicinal Plants of Shikandra Hills.

Botanical Name

Family

Herb (H) / Shrub (S) / Tree (T)

Medicinal

Properties

Edible (E)/ Fodder (F) / Religious (R)/ Medicinal (M)

Vernacular Name

Parts Used

Alium cepa Radic

Alliaceae

H

Ear & Eye Drops, Cholera

E, M

Piaz / Gathhu

Bulbs

Alium sativum L.

Alliaceae

H

Cough, Whooping cough, Skin troubles, Hemicranias, Asthma

E, M

Lahassan

Bulbs

Mangifera indica Thwaites

Anacardiaceae

T

Gonorrhea, Throat troubles, diarrhea, Piles, sunstrokes, Scurvy

E, R, M

Aam

Fruits, Pulp, Stone

Spondias pinnata (L.f.) kurz

Anacardiaceae

T

Astringent, Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems, Skin problems

E, M

Bwara

Fruits, Bark, roots

Corianduum sativum L.

Apiaceae

H

Carminative, Diuretic, Stimulant, Piles, Cough, Impotent

E, M

Dhania

Fruits, Seeds

Daucus carota L.

Apiaceae

H

Aromatc, Carminative

E, M

Gajar

Roots, Seeds, Leaves

Foeniculum

Vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae

H

Aromatic, Stimulant, Carminative, Purgative, dysentery, Dyspepsia, Urinary troubles

E, M

Saunf

Leaves, seeds, Fruits

Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines

Apocyanaceae

S

Gum problems, Wormicides, Snake-biting

E, F, R, M

Garna

Roots,Fruits

Colocasia esculenta (L.)

Araceae

H

Astringent, Swelling pain

E, M

Kachyalu

Tubules, Petioles

Begonia picta Hort. Henders. Ex A. DC.

Beganiaceae

H

Wormicides, Diabetes, Respiratory troubles

E, M

Pethu

Pulp, Seed, Fruits

Berberies lyceum Hort.ex K. Koch

Berberidaceae

H

Eye disorder, conception, constipation

E, M

Rasaunt

Roots, Stem

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz

Bignoniaceae

H

Diarrhea, Dysentery, respiratory diseases, Stomachic, Rheumatism, Piles

E, M

Sona-pathha / Tat-palanga/ Arlu

Roots, Bark, Leaves

Cordia dichotoma G. Forst.

Boraginaceae

T

Astringent, Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems, Skin problems

E, F, M

Lasura

Leaves, Fruits, Bark

Brasssica Compestries L.

Brassicaceae

H

Muscular rheumatism

E, F, R, M

Saronh

Seeds

Brassica napus L.

Brassicaceae

H

Chronic cough, Bronchial catarrh

E, F, M

Toria

Fruits

Brassica nigra (L.) Andrz.

Brassicaceae

H

Wormicides, Digestive secretion

E, M

Banarsi rai

Leaves, Seeds

Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.

Brassicaceae

H

Fever, Intoxication

E, F, M

Phul Gobhi

Root-powder

Brassica oleracea L. var. capital L.

Brassicaceae

H

Liver troubles, Strangury, Hydrophobia

E, M

Band Gobhi

Stem, roots

Brassica rapa L.

Brassicaceae

H

Stomachic, Diuretic, Aperients, Hemorrhages, Parturition

E, M

Shalgum

Leaves

Raphanus sativus L.

Brassicaceae

H

Piles, Diuretic, Carminative, Bronchitis, Stone in kidney, Goiter

E, M

Muli

Roots, Seeds

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Schinz & Thell.

Brassicaceae

H

Appetizing, Antiscorbutic, Stimulant, Goiter, diuretic, Vermifuge, asthma, Tuberculosis

E, M

Chhuchh

Leaves

Cassia occidentals L.

Caesapliniaceae

T

Night blindness, epilepsy

E, M

Ailon

Leaves, Pods

Carica papaya L.

Caricaceae

T

Carminative, Diuretic, Eczema, Skin troubles, Diphtheria, Digestion

E, M

Kharbuja

Fruits, Latex

Chenopodium album L.

Chenopodiaceae

H

Laxative, Anthelminites

E, M

Ghanaun

Whole plant

Chenopodium ambrosioides Hance

Chenopodiaceae

H

Anthelminites, digestive disorder in cattle

I

Kah jawyan

Seeds

Terminalia bellirica Wall.

Combretaceae

T

Diarrhoea, rheumatic swellings, Purgative

E, M

Bhera

Fruits, Kernels

Terminalia chebula Willd. Ex Flem.

Combretaceae

T

Laxative, digestants, stomachic, Attenuating, Aphrodisiacs, Diarrhoea, Hemicrania, Constipation

E, R, M

Harar

Fruits, Bark, Leaves

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir.

Convolvulaceae

H

Purgative, Astringent, tonic, Diarrhea

E, M

sakarkand

Roots

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.

Crassulaceae

S

Diarrhea, Piles, Nose bleeding

E, M

Lakandru

Leaf

Cucumis sativus L.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Diuretic, Tonic, refrigerant, stone, Nephritis

E, R, M

Kakri

Seeds, Roots

Cucerbita maxima wall.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Taeniacides, tonic, Diuretic, Inflammation

E, M

Kaddu

Seeds

Lagenaria siceraria Standl.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Strangely, Xanthopsy, Dropsy, Anthelmintic

E, M

Lauki

Fruits, Leaf, Seeds

Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Conjuctives, Urenia, Amenorrhea, Purgative, Ematic

E, M

Kangher

Leaves, Seeds

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Carminative, Diuretic, Cathartic

E, M

Ghangeri

Fruits, Leaf, seeds

Momordica charantia L.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Measles, Eczema, Vermifuge, Astringent, Snake biting, Hemorrhoids

E, M

Karela

Fruits, leaves

Berberis chitria D. Don

Cucurbitaceae

S

Fever, Jaundice, Skin trouble

E, M

Kashmalu

Root, Bark

Cucumais melo L.

Cucurbitaceae

S

Laxative, Astringent, Demulcent, Refrigerant, Urinary troubles

E, M

Phot

Fruits, Seeds, kernels

Dioscorea bulbifera Russ. Ex Wall.

Discoreaceae

S

Ulcers, Dysentery, Piles, Diarrhea

E, F, M

Ratalu

Fruits, Tubers

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Euphorbiaceae

T

Diarrhea, Eye trobles, Urinary troubles

E, F, R, M

Ambla

Fruits

Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Fabaceae

H

Intestinal inflammation, Small pox, Dysentery, Ulcers

E, F, M

Mirthya

Seeds

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

Flacourtiaceae

T

Digestive, Appetizer, Jaundice, Diuretic

E, F, R, M

Kangu

Fruits,

Bark, Seeds

Mentha piperita L.

Lamiaceae

H

Bronchitis, Stimulant, Stomachic, Carminative

E, M

Pudina

Leaves

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

H

Gonorrhoea, Diarrhea, dysentery, Carminatives, Toothache, Piles

E, M

Bhabri

Seeds, Fruits

Ocimum sanctum L.

Lamiaceae

H

Throat disorder, Stomachic, Expectorant, Malaria, Urino-genital problems

R, M

Tulsi

Leaves, Seeds

Bauhinia variegata L.

Leguminosae

T

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Piles, Prolepses, Corpulence, Toothache

E, F, M

Karyala / Kachnar

Flower-buds, Bark

Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth

Leguminosae

S

Apoplexy, Hemicranias

E, F, M

Arhar

Leaves, Seeds

Cicer arietinum L.

Leguminosae

H

Scurvy, Impotency, Cold

E, F, R, M

Chhole

Seeds

Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.

Leguminosae

S

Diuretic, Urinary problems, Diarrhea

E, M

Kolth

Seeds, Herbs

Pisum sativum L.

Leguminosae

S

Blood purifier, Laxative, Antipyretics

E, F, M

Mattar

seeds

Lens culinaris Medik.

Leguminosae

H

Piles, Vomiting, Diarrhea

E, M

Masar

Seeds

Linum usitatissimum Griseb.

Linaceae

H

Gonorrhea, Backache, Laxative in cattle

E, F, R, M

Alsi

Seeds

Punica granatum L.

Lythraceae

S

Diarrhoea, piles

E, M

Nar

Roots, bark

Abelmoschus

Esculentus Moench

Malvaceae

S

Copulation power, Diuretic

E, M

Tori / Bhindi

Roots, Seeds

Gossypium arboreum Vell.

Malvaceae

H

Diuretic, Digestive

F, M

Kapah

Seeds, Fruits

Cissamplos pareira L.

Menispermaceae

S

Dyspepsia

E, M

Patindoo

Roots, Leaves

Cocculus hirsuts (L.) Diels

Menispermaceae

S

Stomachache, Eczema

E, M

Tardya/Jal-Jamni

Leaves, Roots

Ficus palmate Forssk.

Moraceae

T

Laxative, Lungs, Bladder problems

E, I, M

Khasara

Fruits

Ficus racemosa Willd.

Moraceae

T

Stomachic, Carminative, Diarrhea, Diabetes, Vulnerary, Piles

E, M

Tarayamblu

Fruits, roots, Bark, latex

Ficus religiosa Decne. Ex Miq.

Moraceae

T

Asthma, Cutaneous troubles, Stomachic, Menstruation disorderness

R, M

Pippal

Leaves, bark, Fruits

Morus alba Bureau

Moraceae

T

Refrigerant, Purgative, Vermifuge, Anthelmintic, Diaphoretic

E, F, M

Toot

Fruits, Bark, Roots, Leaves

Musa sapientum L. f. hookeri. King

Musaceae

T

Intestinal disorders, Nephritis, Respiratory problems, Gonorrhoea, Hypertension

E, R, M

Kela

Fruits, Leaves

Psidium guajava L.

Myrtaceae

T

Astringnent, Wounds, Ulcers, Prolepsis, Toothache, Stool

E, M

Amrood

Leaves, Bark

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Myrtaceae

T

Throat problems, mouth washes, Diabetes, Eye Troubles

E, F, M

Jamun

Bark, Leaves, Seeds

Sesamum orientale Sieber ex C. Presl

Pedaliaceae

H

Diuretic, Emollient, Lactagogue, Cough, Piles, Menstrual disorder, Diarrhoea

E, F, R, M

Til

Leaves, Seeds

Oryza sativa L.

Poaceae

H

Hemicramia, Pneumonia

E, F, M

Dhan

Seeds, Stem, Leaves

Triticum aestivum L.

Poaceae

H

Skin irritations, Cough, Urine

E, F, R, M

Kanak

Seeds

Zea mays L.

Poaceae

H

Piles, Swellings in Kidney,

E, F, R, M

Chhali

Grains, Syles

Hordeum vulgare L.

Poeaceae

H

Diuretic, Diabetes

E, R, M

Jau

seeds

Adonis aestivalis M. Bieb.

Ranunculaceae

H

Heart weakness

E, M

Ban-saunf

seeds

Zizyphus mauritiana Adans.

Rhamnaceae

S

Diarrhoea, Nose bleeding, Whooping cough

E, F, M

Ber / Malah

Bark, Leaves

Amygdalus communes L.

Rosaceae

S

Cough, Bronchitis, Diuretic, Gonorrhea, Urinal troubles

E, M

Badam

Kernels

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rosaceae

S

Sedative, Diarrhea, Expectorant

E, M

Loquathh

Fruits, Flowers, Leaves

Prunus persica Stokes

Rosaceae

S

Demulcent, Antiscorbutic, Ascaricide, Diuretic, Purgative, Cough

E, M

Aru

Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Bark

Pyrus pashia Buch.

Rosaceae

S

Wormicides, Vermifuge, Astringnent

E, F, M

Kainth

Seeds, leaves

Rubus ellipticus Sm.

Rosaceae

S

Laxative, Demulcent, Diuretic, appetizer

E, M

Akhey

Fruits

Galium aparine L.

Rubiaceae

H

Diuretic, Refrigerant, Aperients, Antiscorbutic

E, F, M

Ghaa

Whole plants

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Rutaceae

T

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Renal Problems, Dyspepsia, Fever, Jaundice

E, R, M

Bil

Fruits, Pulp, Bark

Citrus aurantium L.

Rutaceae

S

Digestive disorders, Diarrhoea, Wormicides

E, M

Sangtra

Fruits, Rind

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Rutaceae

S

Carminative, Scurvy, Hemicranias

E, M

Nimbu

Fruits, Rind

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Rutaceae

T

Cholera, Convulsive cough, Refrigerants

E, M

Choktra

Leaves, fruits

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Rutaceae

S

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Piles, Stomachic, Renal troubles

E, M

Gandhela / Karri patta

Leaves, Roots

Capsicum annuum L.

Solanaceae

S

Cholera

E, R, M

Pipali

Fruits

Solanum nigrum L.

Solanaceae

H

Tonic, Diuretic, Cathartic, Heart problems, Fever, Anthrax pustules, Dysentery

E, M

Kyaoon

Herb

Solanum tuberosum L.

Solanaceae

H

Diuretic Cough, Catarach

E, M

alu

Tubers

Pouzolzia zeylanica Kuntze

Urticaceae

H

Wormicide, Galactagogue

E, M

Shigra

Seeds

Vitis vinifera L.

Vitaceae

S

Laxative, Diuretic, Demulcent, Dog-biting, Diarrhoea, Skin infections

E, M

Angoor

Leaves, Fruits

Curcuma longa L.

Zingiberaceae

S

Stimulant, Stomachic, Gonorrhea, Diuretic, stimulant, Aromatic, Carminative

E, R, M

Haldar

Rhizomes

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

H

Dyspepsia, Cough, Cold, Jaundice

E, M

Adra / Adrak

Rhizomes

Abbreviations: H=Herb, S=Shrub, T=Tree, E=Edible, F=Fodder, R=Religious, M=Medicinal

The highest number of ethno-medicinal plants was recorded from the family Brassicaceae and Cucerbitaceae having eight plant species followed by Leguminosae having six plant species. Two families namely Rosaceae and Rutaceae contributed five plant species each. Two families namely Moraceae as well as Poaceae contributed four species each. Three species each were contributed by three families namely Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Solanaceae. Two species each were contributed by eight families namely Alliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Combretaceae, Malvaceae, Menispermaceae, Myrtaceae and Zingiberaceae. Rest of the reported families contributed one species each (Figure 1).

Different plant parts were used by the people and the traditional healers for the treatment of various diseases of human and animals. Among different plant parts, the Fruits were found to be the most frequently used part for the treatment of various ailments followed by leaves, roots or rhizomes, bark, flowers, whole plant, and stem. The methods of using these plant parts vary according to the nature of disease. The methods of preparation fall into categories viz., grinding, dried powder, decoction, juice extraction, poultice or usage in cuisine preparation. In some cases plant parts are used as such in fresh form directly. The most common method was grinding of plant parts of various species along with other ingredients like jiggery, carom seeds, black pepper, onion, wheat flour, alum, sugar etc.

img2

Figure 1: Representation of the families and number of plants studied at study site.

Maximum number of plants was used to cure cough and cold followed by digestive disorders, arthritis/joint pain/rheumatism, and kidney diseases and to purify blood. Many of the plants reported are likely to provide new cures to the world of medicine. Human diseases such as arthritis, bruises, boils, bone fractures, cholera, cold, constipation, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dyspepsia, eye and skin infections, fever, headache, high blood pressure, impotence, inflammation, jaundice, joint pain, kidney stones, malaria, measles, mouth ulcers, piles, pneumonia, rheumatism, stomach ache, stomach worms, toothache and wounds were treated by the plant species namely Aegle marmelos, Bauhinia variegata, Carica papaya, Cordia dichotoma, Curcuma longa, Ficus palmate, Ficus racemosa, Flacourtia indica, Murraya koenigii, Ocimum sanctum, Pyrus pashia, Rubus ellipticus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Zizyphus mauritiana.

CONCLUSION: The modern system of medical treatment has become a costly affair beyond the reach of low economy class people living in tribal areas. In contrast, the traditional system of medicine has played a pivotal role in providing healthcare to the people living in the remote areas where the modern facilities have failed to flourish. Hence, it becomes necessary to explore the alterations to provide healthcare for all and that lies with the wild species of medicinal and aromatic plants. The role of ethno-medicinal plants for the welfare of humanity will be of immense value in the years to come.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The help of forest officials and local inhabitants of Sikandra hill regions is duly acknowledged.

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25. Sharma, N.; Kumar, G. Exploration of Some Ethno-medicinal Plants used by Natives of Hamirpur District in Himachal Pradesh, Asian Agri-History, 2015, 19(2), 95-104.

26. Sharma, K. P.; Thakur, R.; Kumar, D.; Gulshan; Deepika. Studies on Some Important Medicinal & Aromatic Plants & Their Traditional Usages in District Hamirpur-A Sub Himalayan Tropical region of Himachal Pradesh-India, Weekly Science International Research Journal, 2013, 1(7), 22-29.

27. Chander, H.; Devi, K.; Dogra, A. Preliminary investigations on diversity of wood rot fungi in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, J. Biol. Chem. Chron., 2017, 3(2), 10-14.

28. Kumar, G.; Chander, H. A Study on the Potential of Azolla pinnata as Livestock Feed Supplement for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, Asian J. Adv. Basic Sci., 2017, 5(2), 65-68.

29. Chander, H.; Choudhary, N.; Sharma, P. Taxonomic and Ethnobotanical Notes on Some Ferns and Fern Allies of Hamirpur (H.P.), North-Western Himalaya, J . Biol. Chem. Chron., 2017, 3(1), 28-40.

30. Chander, H.; Thakur, S.; Sharma, S. Investigations on Diversity of Wood Inhabiting Fungi in Sarkaghat Region of District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, North-Western Himalaya, J. Biol. Chem. Chron., 2017, 3(1), 41-54.

31. Chander, H.; Chandel, V. C. An Enumeration of Lichens from Bara Bhangal Region of Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary. Asian Journal of Advanced Basic Sciences, 2019, 7(1), 45-50

32. Chander, H,; Kumari, R; Sharma, S. Diversity, Distribution and Prioritization of Fodder Species for Conservation in Hamirpur District, Himachal Pradesh.Proceedings of 9th Indian Youth Congress (9IYSC), CPUH-Research Journal, 2018, 3(2), 124-131.

33. Hem Chander & Jyoti Pathania (2018). Notes on Occurrence of Anti HIV-1 Medicinal Macrofungi Tyromyces chioneus in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh.Proceedings of 9th Indian Youth Congress (9IYSC), CPUH-Research Journal, 3(2): 187-190.

34. Pathania, J.; Chander, H. Notes on Some Common Macrofungi of Hamirpur Region, Himachal Pradesh.Proceedings of 9th Indian Youth Congress (9IYSC), CPUH-Research Journal, 2018, 3(2), 191-201.

35. Pathania, J.; Chander, H. Nutritional Qualities and Host Specificity of Most Common Edible Macrofungi of Hamirpur District, Himachal Pradesh. Biol. Chem. Chron.,2018, 4(2), 86-89.

36. Chander H., Sapna, Deepika and Sanjna. Species Diversity of Lichens in Balh Valley of Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya,Journal of Biological and Chemical Chronicles, 2019, 5(2), 32-40.

37. Thakur, M.; Chander, H. Common Foliose Macrolichens of Sikander Dhar, North-Western Himalaya.Proceedings of 9th Indian Youth Congress (9IYSC), CPUH-Research Journal, 2018, 3(2), 179-186.

38. Thakur, M.; Chander, H.Ethnolichenological Notes on Lichens of Sikandra Dhar Region of North-West Himalaya, Asian J. Adv. Basic Sci., strong>2018, 6(2), 38-41.

39. Thakur, M.; Chander, H.Bio-Indicator Lichens of Sikandra Hills of North West Himalaya,Asian J. Adv. Basic Sci., 2018,6(2), 35-37.