Indigenous Ethno-Medicinal and Ethno-Veterinary Practices in Shivalik Hills Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

Gulshan Kumar1 and Hem Chander 2*

1,2 Department of Bio-Sciences, Career Point University, Hamirpur (H.P.), INDIA

* Correspondence: E-mail: hemchander78@gmail.com

(Received 17 June, 2017; Accepted 22 Aug, 2018; Published 26 Aug, 2018)

ABSTRACT: Shivalik hills are the rich repository of diverse aromatic and medicinal plants. The present study focused on the analysis, documentation and interpretation of indigenous ethno-medicinal and ethno-veterinary practices in Shivalik hills zone of Himachal Pradesh, North-West Himalaya. During the study, a total of two hundred species of plants have been identified and enumerated. The highest number of species belongs to the families Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Ranunculaceae and Sapindaceae. A wide range of diseases of human ranging from cough and cold to asthma and bronchitis, cuts and wounds to snakebites, and are treated by the traditional healers of study area with the help of these local plant remedies. Some of these plants are also used for ethno-veterinarian practices by livestock owners to diagnose animal diseases like foot and mouth disease, constipation, dysentery and de-worming etc. It was observed that unsustainable collection methods, poor post-harvest methods, soil erosion, intense deforestation and grazing animals are causing serious threat to these plants.

Keywords: Ailments; Ethno-veterinary practices; Medicinal plants; Shivalik hills and Traditional usage.

INTRODUCTION: Indian Himalayan region (IHR) is one amongst the thirty-eight biodiversity hotspots of World.1 & 2 The floral wealth of IHR accounts for more than 9000 plant species including 33% species as endemics.3 A large number of studies on medicinal and aromatic plants have been carried out in this region. 4, 5 & 6 However, in Himachal Pradesh, such studies are incomplete and mainly focused on inventory. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14 Some workers have mentioned medicinal uses of plants in ethnobotanical notes, floristic and biodiversity studies.16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 & 23 The natural stock of medicinal plants of Himachal Pradesh is enriched by diverse plant species, which includes around 3,400 species of flowering plants distributed from tropical to alpine zone.24

The Shivalik zone is spread over districts Hamirpur, Bilaspur, Una, Mandi, Sirmour and Solan of Himachal Pradesh. Ecologically, entire Shivalik belt is considered as highly sensitive zone. This region suffers heavy fragmentation and degradation of habitat due to human encroachment and proliferation of exotic weeds such asLantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cassia tora and Sida spp.25 This part of IHR is an extensive abode of the tribal communities such as Kohlies and Gujjars. Their main profession is semi-nomadic, semi-pastoral and semi-agricultural type. In ancient times, it had been the abode of Rishies and Munies (prophet, sages or saints), who pursued their meditational and scholarly endeavors here. The research and practices of Rishies and Munies on herbs proved a panacea for the people of the region. The knowledge acquired by a few local inhabitants, descended down from generation to generation still forms the traditional practices of herbal cure. Despite a rich heritage and enormous herbal wealth existing in the state, it is disheartening to point out that the knowledge acquired and disseminated by the great saints and scholars, is on the verge of extinction on the very land of its origin. Owing to lack of awareness and proper written records, the traditional practice of herbal-cure had to suffer a lot during the course of time. Therefore, an attempt has been made to provide comprehensive information on traditional use of plants in regions of Shivalik zone of North-Western Himalaya.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : Extensive field survey were conducted in various locations of Shivallik hill of district Hamirpur, Una, Bilaspur, Mandi, Kangra, Sirmour and Solan of Himachal Pradesh during the study period (2016-17). Prior to the visit to research sites, a questionnaire was designed and pre-tested to find out if it actually worked. Revisions needed as a result of this pre-test were noted and undertaken in the following day of the visit. The traditional usage of plant resources were learned with both the questionnaire and through participatory techniques. The ethno-medicinal importance of the collected plants containing the information about the vernacular name of the plants, part used and medicinal and vegetarian practices were recorded through detailed discussion with local people and traditional healers.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 200 plant species in 72 families were documented for the treatment of various chronic ailments in the studied area (Table 1). Among the families, maximum species were represented from Leguminosae (14 spp.) followed by Brassicaceae (12 spp.), Asteraceae (9 spp.), Cucerbitaceae (9 spp.), Rutaceae (9 spp.), Solanaceae (9 spp.), Moraceae (8 spp.), Rutaceae (8 spp.) and Euphorbiaceae (7 spp. each), Rosaceae (7 spp.), Poaceae (6 spp.), Alliaceae (4 spp.), Apiaceae (4spp.), Lamiaceae (4 spp.), Rannunculaceae (4 spp.), Rubiaceae (4 spp.), Amaranthaceae (3 spp.), Anacardiaceae (3 spp.), Asperagaceae (3 spp.), Chenopodiaceae (3 spp.), Combretaceae (3 spp.), Lythraceae (3 spp.), Malvaceae (3 spp.), Menispermaceae (3 spp.), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Sapindaceae (3 spp.), Urticaceae (3 spp.), Zingiberaceae (3 spp.), Apocyanaceae (2 spp.), Berberidaceae (2 spp.), Bignoniaceae (2 spp.), Crassulaceae (2 spp.), Fabaceae (2spp.), Lauraceae (2 spp.), Myrtaceae (2 spp.), Pedaliaceae (2 spp.) and Sterculiaceae (2 spp.). The local people and traditional healers were using these plants to treat various diseases of human as well as animals like Astringent, Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems, Skin problems, asthma, body pain, bone fracture, cholera, cold, conception, constipation, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, healing wounds, high blood pressure, improving appetite, indigestion, influenza, joint pain, kidney stones, leucorrhea, malaria, measles, mouth ulcers, piles, pneumonia, purify blood, respiratory disorders, rheumatic pain, skin and eye infections, stomach worms, toothache and whooping cough.

Table 1: Ethno-medicinal and ethno-veterinary plants of Shivalik hills.

Sr No.

BOTANICAL NAME

FAMILY

H/S/T

MEDICINAL

PROPERTIES

E/F/R/M/V

LOCAL NAME

PARTS USED

1.

Justicia adhatoda Mart. Ex Nees

Acanthaceae

S

Leucorrhoea, Cough, Tuberculosis, Jaundice, Vomiting, Diuretic, Stomachs disorders, Wormicides

M, V

Basuti

Leaves

2.

Acorus calamus L.

Acoraceae

T

Expel out the worms, Hydrocele, Urinary problems, epilepsy

M

Barya

Rhizome, Fruits

3.

Agave cantala (L.) Schult.

Agavaceae

S

Scurvy, Syphilis, Goiter, Ulcer, Eczema

M

Jarri

Leave, roots

4.

Alium cepa Radic

Alliaceae

H

Ear & Eye Drops, Cholera

E, M

Piaz / Gathhu

Bulbs

5.

Alium sativum L.

Alliaceae

H

Cough, Whooping cough, Skin troubles, Hemicranias, Asthma

E, M

Lahassan

Bulbs

6.

Zeyphyranthes candida Lindl.

Alliaceae

H

Earache, Eye drops, Cholera

E, M

leaves

7.

Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl.

Alliaceae

H

Cough, Skin trouble, Hemicranias, Rheumatism

E, M

Sukhrashan

Leaves

8.

Aloe barbadensis Mill.

Aloaceae

H

Whooping cough, Skin troubles, Hemicranias

M

Dharitkumari

Leave, roots

9.

Achranythes aspera Wall.

Amaranthaceae

H

Stone kidney, Piles, Night blindness, Cough

R, M

Puthhkanda

Roots, leaves, seeds, Bark

10.

Aerva lanta (L.) Schult.

Amaranthaceae

S

Diuretic, Cough, sore-throat, Diabetes, Headache

M

Dhardu

Leave, Fruits

11.

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Amaranthaceae

H

Leprosy, Cutaneous trouble

F, M,V

Chulai

Leaves

12.

Cirnus defixum Ker Gawl.

Amaryllidiaceae

H

Diaphoretic, emollient, Earache

M

SuKh darshan

Leave, Bulbs

13.

Cotinus coggygria Scop.

Anacardiaceae

H

Headache, Inflammations, Dyspepsia

M

Tahirra

Leave, Roots

14.

Mangifera indica Thwaites

Anacardiaceae

T

Gonorrhea, Throat troubles, diarrhea, Piles, sunstrokes, Scurvy

E, R, M

Aam

Fruits, Pulp, Stone

15.

Spondias pinnata (L.f.) kurz

Anacardiaceae

T

Antiscorbutic, Dyspepsia, Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Rheumatism

E, M

Bwara

Fruits, Bark, roots

16.

Centella asiatica Urb.

Apiaceae

H

Improving memory, madness, hysteria, syphilitic skin diseases, Jaundice

M

Brahmi

Herb, Leaves

17.

Corianduum sativum L.

Apiaceae

H

Carminative, Diuretic, Stimulant, Piles, Cough, Impotent

E, M

Dhania

Fruits, Seeds

18.

Daucus carota L.

Apiaceae

H

Carminative, Tonic

E, M

Gajar

Roots, Seeds, Leaves

19.

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae

H

Aromatic, Stimulant, Carminative, Purgative, dysentery, Dyspepsia, Urinary troubles

E, M

Saunf

Leave, seeds, Fruits

20.

Carissa opaca Stapf ex Haines

Apocyanaceae

S

Gum problems, Wormicides, Snake-biting

E, F, R, M

Garna

Roots,Fruits

21.

Nerium odorum Aiton

Apocyanaceae

T

Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Fever, Respiratory troubles

F, M

Kaner

Leaves

22.

Colocasia esculenta (L.)

Araceae

H

Astringent, Swelling pain

E, M

Kachyalu

Tuber, Petioles

23.

Calotropis procera W. T. Aiton

Asclepiadaceae

H

Respiratory troubles, Abdominal swelling, Hemicranias delirium, Rheumatism, Eye sight

R, M

Ak

Leave, Stem

24.

Asparagus adscendens Roxb.

Asperagaceae

H

Aphrodisiac, Exhilarant, Demulcent, Diabetes, gonorrhea, Diarrhoea

R, M,V

Sanspai

Roots

25.

Asparagus racemosus willd.

Asperagaceae

H

Laxative, Asthma, Dyspepsia

R, M,V

Sattavar

Leave, Seeds

26.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell

Asperagaceae

Digestive secretion, Memory loss, Agony, Reddishness, Cough, Catarrach, Urino-genital disorders

R, E, M,V

Badi-Bharmi

Whole plant

27.

Ageratum conyzoids L.

Asteraceae

H

Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Gastro-intestinal ailments, Antilithic

M

Neela Phulnnu

Plant, Leaves

28.

Anthemis cotula L.

Asteraceae

H

Carminative, Stimulant

F, M

Butikah

Flowers

29.

Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff

Asteraceae

H

Sore, whelks

F, M

Lamb

Leaves

30.

Blumea lacera (Burm. F.) DC.

Asteraceae

H

Wormicides, Piles, Headache

F, M

Makora gha

Leaves

31.

Centipeda minima (L.) A. Braun & Asch.

Asteraceae

H

Catarrh, vermifuge, Ophthalmia

M

Nak chhikni

Herb, Seeds

32.

Spilanthes calva DC.

Asteraceae

H

Salivation in a dry mouth, Throat infection, Paralysis of tongue, Epilepsy, Sneezes, Scabies

M

Karkara

Flower, Herb’s decoction

33.

Tagetes erecta L.

Asteraceae

H

Diuretic, Fever, Cathartic, Respiratory trouble

M

Gatakaddi

Leaves

34.

Tagetes minuta L.

Asteraceae

H

Diuretic, Fever, Cathartic, Expectorant,

M

Leaves

35.

Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. var. palustre Blytt

Asteraceae

H

Laxative, Cathartic, Expectorant, Tonic, Malarial fever,

M, V

Dudhali

Leaves, Stem

36.

Begonia picta Hort. Henders. Ex A. DC.

Beganiaceae

H

Wormicides, Diabetes, Respiratory troubles

E, M

Pethu

Pulp, Seed, Fruits

37.

Berberies lyceum Hort.ex K. Koch

Berberidaceae

H

Eye disorder

E, M

Rasaunt

Roots, Stem

38.

Berberis lycium hort. Ex k. Koch

Berberidaceae

T

Laxative, Asthma, Dyspepsia

F,M

Daruharidra / Kashmal

Leaves, Bark

39.

Jacarnda mimosifolia D. Don

Bignoniaceae

T

Syphilis, Blennorrhagia, Vulnerary, Chest problems

M

Nili-Gulmohar

Bark, Leaves

40.

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Benth. Ex Kurz

Bignoniaceae

H

Diarrhea, Dysentery, respiratory diseases, Stomachic, Rheumatism, Piles

E, M

Sona-pathha / Tat-palanga/ Arlu

Roots, Bark, Leaves

41.

Bombax ceiba L.

Bombacaceae

T

Hysteria, syphilitic skin diseases

F, M

Simbal

Bark, Leaves

42.

Cordia dichotoma G. Forst.

Boraginaceae

T

Astringent, Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems, Skin problems

E, F, M

Lasura

Leaves, Fruits, Bark

43.

Brassica napus L.

Brassicaceae

H

Chronic cough, Bronchial catarrh

E, F, M

Toria

Fruits

44.

Brassica nigra (L.) Andrz.

Brassicaceae

H

Wormicides, Digestive secretion

E, M, V

Banarsi rai

Leave, Seeds

45.

Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.

Brassicaceae

H

Fever, Intoxication

E, F, M

Phul Gobhi

Root-powder

46.

Eruca vesicarica L.

Brassicaceae

H

Liver troubles, Strangury, Hydrophobia

E, M

Taramira

Stem, roots

47.

Brassica rapa L.

Brassicaceae

H

Stomachic, Diuretic, Aperients, Hemorrhages, Parturition

E, M

Shalgum

Leaves

48.

Raphanus sativus L.

Brassicaceae

H

Stomachic, diuretic, Aperients, Hemorrhages

E, M

Moli

Leaves

49.

Brasssica Compestries L.

Brassicaceae

H

Muscular rheumatism

E, F, R, M, V

Saronh

Seeds

50.

Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik.

Brassicaceae

H

Hemorrhage, Stimulant

M

Toriya

Plants, Seeds

51.

Lepidium sativum L.

Brassicaceae

H

Liver diseases, Asthma, Cough, Bronchitis

F, M, V

Halon

Seeds, Roots, Leaves

52.

Raphanus sativus L.

Brassicaceae

H

Piles, Diuretic, Carminative, Bronchitis, Stone in kidney, Goiter

E, M

Muli

Roots, Seeds

53.

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Schinz & Thell.

Brassicaceae

H

Appetizing, Antiscorbutic, Stimulant, Goiter, diuretic, Vermifuge, asthma, Tuberculosis

E, M, V

Chhuchh

Leaves

54.

Sisymbrium irio K. Koch

Brassicaceae

H

Laxative, Antipyretic, Diuretic, Fever

F, M

Khoob-kalan

Leaves

55.

Cassia occidentals L.

Caesapliniaceae

T

Night blindness, epilepsy

E, M

Ailon

Leave, Pods

56.

Cannabis sativa L.

Cannabaceae

S

Agony, Reddishness, Cough, Catarrach, Urino-genital disorders

R, M, V

Bhang

Leave, Seeds

57.

Carica papaya L.

Caricaceae

T

Carminative, Diuretic, Eczema, Skin troubles, Diphtheria, Digestion

E, M

Kharbuja

Fruits, Latex

58.

Chenopodium album L.

Chenopodiaceae

H

Laxative, Anthelminites

E, M, V

Ghanaun

Whole plant

59.

Chenopodium ambrosioides Hance

Chenopodiaceae

H

Anthelminites, digestive disorder in cattle

F, M

Kah jawyan

Seeds, Leaves

60.

Chenopodium botryois Moq.

Chenopodiaceae

H

Hysteria, syphilitic skin diseases

E, M, V

Bathu

Leaves

61.

Gloriosa supperba L.

Cochicaceae

S

Gonorrhea, Wormicides, Aphrodisiac, Jaundice, Earache, Scorpion ache

M

Kalihari / tarangri

Rhizomes

62.

Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn.

Combretaceae

T

Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Antipyretic, Cathartic, Tonic, Respiratory trouble

M

Arjun

Bark

63.

Terminalia bellirica Wall.

Combretaceae

T

Diarrhoea, rheumatic swellings, Purgative

E, M, V

Bhera

Fruits, Kernels

64.

Terminalia chebula Willd. Ex Flem.

Combretaceae

T

Laxative, digestants, stomachic, Attenuating, Aphrodisiacs, Diarrhoea, Hemicranias, Apoplexy, Constipation

E, R, M, V

Harar

Fruits, Bark, Leaves

65.

Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir.

Convolvulaceae

H

Purgative, Astringent, tonic, Diarrhea

E, M

Sakarkand

Roots

66.

Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm.

Costaceae

S

Sores, pimples, Throat pains, Cough

M, V

Kau

Seeds, Leaves

67.

Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.

Crassulaceae

S

Diarrhea, Piles, Nose bleeding

E, M

Lakandru

Leaf

68.

Sedum ewarsii L.

Crassulaceae

S

Diarrhoea, Piles, Nose bleeding

M

Leaves

69.

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Mastitis, Dog biting, Xanthopsy

M, V

Farfanu

Roots, Fruits

70.

Cucerbita maxima wall.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Taeniacides, tonic, Diuretic, Inflammation

E, M

Kaddu

Seeds

71.

Cucumis sativus L.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Diuretic, Tonic, refrigerant, stone, Nephritis

E, R, M

Kakri

Seeds, Roots

72.

Lagenaria siceraria Standl.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Strangury, Xanthopsy, Dropsy, Anthelmintic

E, M

Lauki

Fruits, Leaf, Seeds

73.

Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Conjuctives, Urenia, Amenorrhea, Purgative, Ematic

E, M

Kangher

Leave, Seeds

74.

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Carminative, Diuretic, Cathartic

E, M

Ghangeri

Fruits, Leaf, seeds

75.

Momordica charantia L.

Cucerbitaceae

S

Measles, Eczema, Vermifuge, Astringent, Snake biting, Hemorrhoids

E, M

Karela

Fruits, leaves

76.

Berberis chitria D. Don

Cucurbitaceae

S

Fever, Jaundice, Skin trouble

E, M

Kashmalu

Root, Bark

77.

Cucumais melo L.

Cucurbitaceae

S

Laxative, Astringent, Demulcent, Refrigerant, Urinary troubles

E, M

Phot

Fruits, Seeds, kernels

78.

Cuscuta reflexa Decne.

Cuscutaceae

H

Stomach, Blood-purifier, Skin troubles, Liver complaints

M

Amberbel

Seeds, Decoction

79.

Dioscorea bulbifera Russ. Ex Wall.

Discoreaceae

S

Ulcers, Dysentery, Piles, Diarrhea

E, F, M

Ratalu

Fruits, Tubers

80.

Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Euphorbiaceae

T

Diarrhea, Eye trobles, Urinary troubles

E, F, R, M

Ambla

Fruits

81.

Euphorbia helioscopia L.

Euphorbiaceae

H

Cholera, Rheumatics

M, V

Baddi Dudhhali

Leave, Roots, Latex

82.

Euphorbia royleana Boiss.

Euphorbiaceae

S

Cathartic, Anthelminite

R, M

Chhuin

Latex

83.

Jatropha curcas Wall.

Euphorbiaceae

S

Paralysis, Dropsy, sciatica, skin trouble, Rheumatism, eczema, ring worms

M

Jablothha

Seeds, leaves

84.

Mallotus philippinenses Pax & K. Hoffm

Euphorbiaceae

T

Anthelmintic, Baldness, Cutaneous, Trouble, Pains in Ribs

F, R, M, V

Kaamal / Kangu –ra-dal

Fruits

85.

Phyllanthus urinaria Wall.

Euphorbiaceae

H

Laxative, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Antipyretic, Respiratory trouble

M

Bhoomi ambla

Fruits

86.

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

T

Laxative, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Antipyretic, Diuretic

M

Erand

Roots, Fruits

87.

Abrus precatorius L.

Fabaceae

H

Diuretic, Tonic, Ematic, Cough, Cold, Paralysis, Leprosy

M

Ratti / Ratkan / Kalankani-buti

Roots, Flowers, Seeds

88.

Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

Fabaceae

H

Intestinal inflammation, Small pox, Dysentery, Ulcers

E, F, M, V

Mirthya

Seeds

89.

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

Flacourtiaceae

T

Digestive, Appetizer, Jaundice, Diuretic

E, F, R, M

Kangu

Fruits,

Bark, Seeds

90.

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Hypoxidaceae

H

Anthelminite, Sores, pimples, Throat pains, Cough

M

Kali musali

Leave, Stem, Roots

91.

Juglans regia L. Var. intermedia (Jacques)

Juglandaceae

T

Astringent, Anthelminite

E, M

Khor

Leaves

92.

Ajuga bracteosa Benth.

Lamiaceae

H

Astringent, Diuretic, Malaria, Gout, Rheumatism, Fever

M

Nilkanthi, Khurbanti

Whole plant

93.

Mentha piperita L.

Lamiaceae

H

Bronchitis, Stimulant, Stomachic, Carminative

E, M

Pudina

Leaves

94.

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

H

Gonorrhoea, Diarrhea, dysentery, Carminatives, Toothache, Piles

E, M, V

Bhabri

Seeds, Fruits

95.

Ocimum sanctum L.

Lamiaceae

H

Throat disorder, Stomachic, Expectorant, Malaria, Urino-genital problems

R, M

Tulsi

Leave, Seeds

96.

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) T. Nees & C. H. Eberm.

Lauraceae

S

Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems

R, M

Karpor

Leave, Bark

97.

Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & C. H. Eberm.

Lauraceae

S

Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems

M

Leaves

98.

Butea monosperma Kuntze

Leguminoceae

T

Hysteria, syphilitic skin diseases

F, M

Plass

Leave, Bark

99.

Albizia chinensis Merr.

Leguminosae

T

Wounds, Itching, Skin problems

F, M

Chiuli / Oi

Bark

100.

Bauhinia variegata L.

Leguminosae

T

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Piles, Prolepses, Corpulence, Toothache

E, F, M

Karyala / Kachnar

Flower-buds, Bark

101.

Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth

Leguminosae

S

Apoplexy, Hemicranias

E, F, M

Arhar

Leave, Seeds

102.

Cassia fistula Herbb. Ex Oliv.

Leguminosae

S

Sores, Blisters, Eradication of ring worms, Diuretic, Purgative

F, M

Alih / Karangal

Leave, flowers, Pulp

103.

Crotalaria spectabilis L.

Leguminosae

H

Sores, pimples, Throat pains, Cough, Scabies

M

Jhunjhunia

Leaves

104.

Derris indica (Lam.) Bennet

Leguminosae

H

Vomiting, Leprosy,

Hydrocele

M

Karanj / Sukhchain

Leaves

105.

Desmodium gangeticum Blanco

Leguminosae

H

Cathartic, Anthelminite

M

Shalparnni

Leaves

106.

Dolichos biflorus L.

Leguminosae

H

Cutaneous troubles, Stomachic,

E, M

Kulth

Seeds

107.

Erythrina suberosa Roxb.

Leguminosae

T

Fever, Jaundice, Wormicides

M

Bel

Leaves, Bark

108.

Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.

Leguminosae

S

Diuretic, Urinary problems, Diarrhea

E, M

Kolth

Seeds, Herbs

109.

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

Leguminosae

H

Tonic, Wormicides, Diuretic, Purgative, stimulant, Dropsy, Renal troubles, Aphrodisiac

M

Daryogal

Leaves, Roots, Seeds

110.

Phanera vahali (Wight & Arn.) Benth.

Leguminosae

T

Fever, Bronchitis, Jaundice, Epilepsy, headache, Eye troubles

R, M

Tour

Bark

111.

Pisum sativum L.

Leguminosae

S

Blood purifier, Laxative, Antipyretics

E, F, M

Mattar

Seeds

112.

Linum usitatissimum Griseb.

Linaceae

H

Gonorrhea, Backache, Laxative in cattle

E, F, R, M, V

Alsi

Seeds

113.

Lawsonia inermis L. ver. Spinosa (L.) Pers.

Lythraceae

S

Leucoderma, Hemicranias, Leprosy, Skin troubles, Diarrhoea

M

Mehndi

Leaves

114.

Punica granatum L.

Lythraceae

S

Diarrhoea, piles

E, M

Nar

Roots, bark, rind

115.

Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz

Lythraceae

H

Astringent, Diuretic, Antisyphilitic, Serofula

M

Jhinjri

Roots, Flowers, Seeds

116.

Abelmoschus esculentus Moench

Malvaceae

S

Copulation power, Diuretic

E, M

Tori / Bhindi

Roots, Seeds

117.

Gossypium arboreum Vell.

Malvaceae

H

Diuretic, Digestive

F, M

Kapah

Seeds, Fruits

118.

Urena lobata L.

Malvaceae

H

Diuretic, Rheumatism, Expectorant, Whooping cough, Sore throat

M

Banbhinda

Roots, Flowers, Stem

119.

Melia azedarach L.

Meliaceae

T

Wormicide, Menstrual disorders, Stomachic, Goiter, Leprosy, Skin trouble, Piles, Rheumatism

M

Drek

Leave, Flowers, Seeds

120.

Cissamplos pareira L.

Menispermaceae

S

Dyspepsia

E, M

Patindoo

Roots, Leaves

121.

Cocculus hirsuts (L.) Diels

Menispermaceae

S

Stomachache, Eczema

E, M

Tardya/Jal-Jamni

Leave, Roots

122.

Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F. & Thomson

Menispermaceae

H

Chronic rheumatism, Urinary troubles, Snake biting, Gout, Heart stimulant, Jaundice

M, V

Giloe

Stem, Leave, Roots

123.

Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

Mimosaceae

T

Dysentery, Renal Problems, Dyspepsia

F, M

Sarih

Seeds, Leave, Bark

124.

Ficus benghalensis L.

Moraceae

S

Rheumatics, Toothache, Urinary infection, Goiter, Cracks in the foot

R, M

Bar

Bark, Latex, Leaves

125.

Ficus caica Decne. Ex Miq

Moraceae

T

Stomachic, Cutaneous troubles, Asthma, Infertility

M

Dhhudda

Bark, Leave, seeds

126.

Ficus glomerata hort. Ex Miq.

Moraceae

T

Stomachic, Cutaneous troubles

F, E, M

Umer

Leave, fruits

127.

Ficus infectoria Roxb.

Moraceae

T

Cutaneous troubles, Stomachic, Menstruation disorderness

F, M

Pallakhare

Leaves

128.

Ficus palmate Forssk.

Moraceae

T

Laxative, Lungs, Bladder problems

E, R, M, V

Panj-Khasara

Fruits

129.

Ficus racemosa Willd.

Moraceae

T

Stomachic, Carminative, Diarrhea, Diabetes, Vulnerary, Piles

E, M, V

Tarayamblu

Fruits, roots, Bark, latex

130.

Ficus religiosa Decne. Ex Miq.

Moraceae

T

Asthma, Cutaneous troubles, Stomachic, Menstruation disorderness

R, M

Pippal

Leave, bark, Fruits

131.

Morus alba Bureau

Moraceae

T

Refrigerant, Purgative, Vermifuge, Anthelmintic, Diaphoretic

E, F, M

Toot

Fruits, Bark, Roots, Leaves

132.

Musa sapientum L. f. hookeri. King

Musaceae

T

Intestinal disorders, Nephritis, Respiratory problems, Gonorrhea, Hypertension

E, R, M

Kela

Fruits, Leaves

133.

Psidium guajava L.

Myrtaceae

T

Astringent, Wounds, Ulcers, Prolepsis, Toothache, Stool

E, M

Amrood

Leave, Bark

134.

Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

Myrtaceae

T

Throat problems, mouth washes, Diabetes, Eye Troubles

E, F, M

Jamun

Bark, Leave, Seeds

135.

Boerhavia diffusa Engelm. & A. Gray

Nyctaginaceae

S

Expectorant, Diuretic, Laxative, Asthma, Dyspepsia

M

Gadha-purna / Punarnava, Lit-sitt

Bark, Root

136.

Jasminum grandiflorum Hook. f.

Oleaceae

S

Dysentery, Renal Problems, Dyspepsia

R, M

Malti

Flowers, Leaves

137.

Jasminum humile B. Heyne ex Wall

Oleaceae

H

Tuberculosis, Mouth blisters, Eye troubles

M

Jahi / Peeli chameli

Leave, roots, Flowers

138.

Nyctanthes arbortristis L.

Oleaceae

S

Antibilious, Expectorant, Fevers, Sciatica

M

Har singar

Leaves

139.

Argemone maxicana L.

Papaveraceae

S

Cataract, night blindness, Xerophthalmia, ophthalmia, Leprosy, Cutaneous trouble, Asthmas

M

Satyanashi / Shail kanta / peela kandiara

Latex, Seed Oil

140.

Lens culinaris Medik.

Papilionaceae

H

Piles, Vomiting, Diarrhea

E, M

Masar

Seeds

141.

Martynia anua L.

Pedaliaceae

H

Epilepsy, sore throat, Inflammations

M

Kau

Fruits, Leaves

142.

Sesamum orientale Sieber ex C. Presl

Pedaliaceae

H

Diuretic, Emollient, Lactagogue, Cough, Piles, Menstrual disorder, Diarrhoea

E, F, R, M, V

Til

Leave, Seeds

143.

Plantago lanceolata Hook.

Plantaginaceae

Astringnent, vulnery, wounds, Sores, diuretic, Purgative

M

Patrah

Leaves

144.

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Plumbaginaceae

H

Diuretic, Vesicant, Abortifacient, Dyspepsia, piles, diarrhea, skin diseases, Ulcers

M

Chitra

Roots

145.

Arundo donex

L.

Poaceae

S

Diuretic, Laxative, Digestive Disorders in cattle

M

Nal / Nul

Leave, Culms

146.

Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf

Poaceae

H

Rheumatics, Toothache, Urinary infection, Goiter, Cracks in the foot

R, M

Kusha / Dabb

Culms

147.

Oryza sativa L.

Poaceae

H

Hemicramia, Pneumonia

E, F, M

Dhan

Seeds, Stem, Leaves

148.

Triticum aestivum L.

Poaceae

H

Skin irritations, Cough, Urine

E, F, R, M

Kanak

Seeds

149.

Zea mays L.

Poaceae

H

Piles, Swellings in Kidney,

E, F, R, M

Chhali

Grains, Syles

150.

Hordeum vulgare L.

Poaceae

H

Diuretic, Diabetes

E, R, M

Jau

seeds

151.

Rumex hastatus D. Don

Polygonaceae

H

Antipyretic, Diuretic, Fever, Cathartic, Expectorant, Tonic, Tonic, Respiratory trouble

E, F, M

Khatmith

Fruits, leaves

152.

Ranunculus sceleratus L.

Rannunculaceae

H

Sneezing, Catarrh, kidney-problems, toothache

M

Jal-Dhania

Seeds, Leaves, Roots

153.

Thalictrum foliolosum L.

Ranunculaceae

H

Heart weakness

M,V

Pili jari

Roots

154.

Adonis aestivalis M. Bieb.

Ranunculaceae

H

Heart weakness

E, M

Ban-saunf

seeds

155.

Thalictrum foliolosum Hook. f. & Thomson

Ranunculaceae

H

Intermittent fever, Eye troubles, Snake biting, Cholera

R, M

Mamiri

Leaves

156.

Zizyphus manuritiana Adans.

Rhamnaceae

S

Diarrhoea, Nose bleeding, Whooping cough

E, F, M

Ber / Malah

Bark, Leaves

157.

Amygdalus communes L.

Rosaceae

S

Cough, Bronchitis, Diuretic, Gonorrhea, Urinal troubles

E, M

Badam

Kernels

158.

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.

Rosaceae

S

Sedative, Diarrhea, Expectorant

E, M

Loquathh

Fruits, Flowers, Leaves

159.

Prunus persica Stokes

Rosaceae

S

Demulcent, Antiscorbutic, Ascaricide, Diuretic, Purgative, Cough

E, M

Aru

Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Bark

160.

Pyrus pashia Buch.

Rosaceae

S

Wormicides, Vermifuge, Astringents

E, F, M

Kainth

Seeds, leaves

161.

Rosa damascena Mill.

Rosaceae

S

Antipyretic, Diuretic, Fever, Tonic, Malarial fever, Cathartic

R, M

Bulgariun Gulab

Flowers

162.

Rosa moschata Herrm.

Rosaceae

S

Laxative, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Antipyretic, Diuretic, Cathartic, Expectorant, Tonic, Cathartic, Tonic, Respiratory trouble

R, M

Kubjak Gulab

Flowers

163.

Rubus ellipticus Sm.

Rosaceae

S

Laxative, Demulcent, Diuretic, appetizer

E, M

Akhey

Fruits

164.

Catunaregam nutans (DC.) Tirveng.

Rubiaceae

T

Astringent, Diarrhoea, Dysentary, Ematic, Bone-ache during fever

M

Rara

Bark

165.

Galium aparine L.

Rubiaceae

H

Diuretic, Refrigerant, Aperients, Antiscorbutic

E, F, M

Ghaa

Whole plants

166.

Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Poir

Rubiaceae

T

Laxative, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Antipyretic

F, M

Radda

Fruits, Bark

167.

Rubia cordifolia Thunb.

Rubiaceae

S

Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Respiratory trouble

M

Majeest

Leaves

168.

Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa

Rutaceae

T

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Renal Problems, Dyspepsia, Fever, Jaundice

E, R, M

Bil

Fruits, Pulp, Bark

169.

Citrus aurantium L.

Rutaceae

S

Digestive disorders, Diarrhoea, Wormicides

E, M

Sangtra

Fruits, Rind

170.

Citrus jambhiri Lush.

Rutaceae

T

Anthelminite, Diuretic, Expectorant, Urinary problems, Skin problems

E, M

Jhhamiri

Fruits

171.

Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.

Rutaceae

S

Carminative, Scurvy, Hemicranias

E, M

Nimbu

Fruits, Rind

172.

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Rutaceae

T

Cholera, Convulsive cough, Refrigerants

E, M

Choktra

Leave, fruits

173.

Citrus medica L. var. alata Tanaka

Rutaceae

S

Diarrhoea, Wormicides

E, M

Kagji Nimbu

Fruits

174.

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

Rutaceae

S

Diarrhea, Dysentery, Piles, Stomachic, Renal troubles

E, M

Gandhela / Karri patta

Leave, Roots

175.

Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb.

Rutaceae

S

Antipyretic, Diuretic, Fever, Cathartic, Expectorant, Respiratory trouble

R,M,V

Tirmiri

Bark, Leaves

176.

Salix disperma Roxb. Ex D. Don

Salicaceae

T

Headache, Inflammations, Dyspepsia, Hemorrhage of lung

M

Beuns

Bark, Flowers, Woods

177.

Cardiospermum halicabum L.

Sapindaceae

S

Headache, earache, Nervous disease, Rheumatism

M

Kanphora / Kanphala

Leave, Roots

178.

Dodonaea viscosa Royen ex Blume

Sapindaceae

S

Rheumatism, Snake biting, Soporiferous

M

Mhendru

Leaves

179.

Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.

Sapindaceae

S

Emetic, expectorant, Epilepsy, Chlorosis, Excessive salvation

M

Rithha / Dodan

Fruits

180.

Verbaseum thapsus Brot.

Scrophulariaceae

H

Inflammation of mucous membrane, Diarrhoea, Pulmonary disease of cattle, Heart stimulant, Irritation

M

Gider-tamakhu / Bhoot lankra

Leaves

181.

Capsicum annuum L.

Solanaceae

S

Cholera, hysteria, syphilitic skin diseases

E, R, M

Pipali

Fruits

182.

Cestrum nocturnum L.

Solanaceae

H

Cholera, Toothache

M

Rat-rani

Leaves, flowers

183.

Datura stramonium Wall.

Solanaceae

S

Inflammations, Boils, Headache, Asthma, Bronchitis, Toothache, Urino-genetial disorders

R, M

Dhatura

Leave, Seeds, roots

184.

Nicotiana tabacum L.

Solanaceae

H

Toothache, Baldness, Vermifuge, whooping cough

M

Tamakhu

Leaves

185.

Solanum indicum L.

Solanaceae

H

Expectorant, Diuretic, Cathartic, Expectorant, Cathartic, Respiratory trouble

F, M

Bharid kantkari

Leaves

186.

Solanum nigrum L.

Solanaceae

H

Tonic, Diuretic, Cathartic, Heart problems, Fever, Dysentery

E, M

Kyaoon

Whole plant

187.

Solanum tuberosum L.

Solanaceae

H

Diuretic Cough, Catarrh

E, M

Alu

Tubers

188.

Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad.

Solanaceae

H

Laxative, Antipyretic, Diuretic, Fever

M

Chhoti kantkari

Stem, Leaves

189.

Withhania somnifera (L.) Dunal

Solanaceae

H

Tuberculosis, Weakness, Menstrual disorders, Dropsy, Rheumatism, Inflammation, Ulcers, Scabies, Goiter

M, V

Aswagandha

Roots, Leaves

190.

Abroma augusta (L.) L.F.

Sterculiaceae

T

Dysmenorrhoea, Swellings, leucorrhoea, Sterility

M

Ulat kambal

Leaves, Roots, bark

191.

Pternospermum acerifolium Benth.

Sterculiaceae

H

Expelling Worms, Urinary troubles, Small pox

M

Lachhmann Patta

Flowers, Fruits, Leaves

192.

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

Uritaceae

T

Diarrhoea, Dysentary, Ematic

M

Japani toot

Flowers

193.

Pouzolzia zeylanica Kuntze

Urticaceae

H

Wormicide

E, M

Shigra

Seeds

194.

Urtica dioica Thunb.

Urticaceae

H

Diarrhoea, Intestinal worms, Cleaning of dandruff

M

Bichhubuti

Roots, Seeds, Leaves

195.

Vitex negundo L.

Verbenaceae

S

High blood pressure, Excrete out the urine, Catarrh, Headache, Dengue fever, Snake biting

M

Banna

Leaves

196.

Viola betonicifolia Bojer ex Baker

Violaceae

H

Laxative, Expectorant, Diaphoretic, Antipyretic, Diuretic, Fever, Cathartic, Expectorant, Tonic, Malarial fever, Cathartic, Tonic, Respiratory trouble

M

Banaksha

Whole plant

197.

Vitis vinifera L.

Vitaceae

S

Laxative, Diuretic, Demulcent, Dog-biting, Diarrhoea, Skin infections

E, M

Angoor

Leaves, Fruits

198.

Curcuma longa L.

Zingiberaceae

S

Rheumatics, Toothache, Urinary infection, Goiter, Cracks in the foot

E, R, M

Haldar

Rhizomes

199.

Costus speciosus L.

Zingiberaceae

H

Dyspepsia, Cough, Cold, Jaundice

E, M

Pokharmol

Rhizomes

200.

Zingiber officinale Roscoe

Zingiberaceae

H

Bronchitis, Dyspepsia, Cough, Cold, Toothache, Jaundice

E, R, M

Adark

Rhizomes

Abbreviations used- H=Herb, S=Shrub, T=Tree, E=Edible, F=Fodder, R=Religious, M=Medicinal, V=Veterinary-Practices

Among the most cured diseases were cough cold/ rheumatism, stomachic/ digestive disorders, wounds/ soars/ pimples/ blisters, Urinary disorders, diarrhea, respiratory problems, dysentery and bilious fever/ malaria (Figure 1, Figure 2). Other studies also showed gastrointestinal pathologies (diarrhea, vomit, and stomach-ache) and respiratory disorders as the most frequently cured ailments with medicinal plants.26, 27 & 28

Some of the plants that are used by the inhabitants of Hamirpur, Bilaspur, and Mandi region find mention in ancient medicinal literature and are also used in different medicines systems such as in the Ayurveda for example Acacia catechu, Cordia dichotoma, Emblica officinale, Taraxacum officinale, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, and Tinospora cordifolia, Vitex negundo .

img2

Figure 1: Plant part used for treating various ailments.

img2

Figure 2: Type of major ailment cured by plants identified in the area of study.

The methods of using these plant parts vary according to the nature of ailment. The methods of preparation fall into categories viz., grinding, dried powder, decoction, juice extraction, poultice or usage in cuisine preparation. In some cases, plant parts are used as such in fresh form directly. The most common method was grinding of plant parts of various species along with other ingredients like jaggery, carom seeds, black pepper, onion, wheat flour, alum, sugar etc. In majority of the cases, a decoction of plants was prescribed for respiratory and digestive disorders like cough, fever, constipation, diarrhea, etc. while inhalation of burnt leaves was suggested for treatment of asthma and bronchitis. Ailments like boils, wounds, inflammation, etc. were treated by applying poultice of seeds, leaves, bulbs. For curing fever dual treatment was suggested, i.e., some plant parts like stem and flowers are administered internally in the form of decoction while root paste in the form of decoction while root paste in the form of another plant is applied externally on palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Skin disease like eczema was cured by external application of the paste or juice of leaves of certain plants. Based on the initial investigation survey and group discussions where emphasis was on identification of knowledgeable resource persons, it was found that information on the medicinal uses of plants now seems to be confined to elders only. The study emphasized that there is a profound and growing knowledge gap between old and younger generations. Younger generation is ignorant about the vast medicinal resources available in their surroundings and is more inclined towards market resources. They rely more on allopathic medicines may be because these are easily available; they are easy to use and provide immediate relief. Also, the younger generation is migrating and those who still in the villages are not interested in the practice of traditional medicine. Thus traditional health care system might be facing serious challenges because of; migration of youth to cities for taking up employment; and lack of knowledge regarding the use of medicinal plants, time of collection, the part of the plant to be used, storage and preparation or formulation as the local healers do not pass on their knowledge to other members of community as it is their only source of income and they also fear that it could be misused, During the course of study, it was observed that most of the healers did not want to disclose the knowledge regarding the methods of drug preparation from plants as they believe that disclosure reduces the effect of the drugs.

Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Shivallik hill’s plants in the families Leguminosae (14 spp.) followed by Brassicaceae (12 spp.), Asteraceae (9 spp.), Cucerbitaceae (9 spp.), Solanaceae (9 spp.), Moraceae (8 spp.) and Euphorbiaceae (7 spp. each), Rosaceae (7 spp.), Poaceae (6 spp.), Alliaceae (4 spp.), Apiaceae (4spp.), Lamiaceae (4 spp.), Rannunculaceae (4 spp.), Rubiaceae (4 spp.) being widely used. Most of the herbal medicines were prepared in the form of paste, powder, decoction, extract, and smoke. The parts of plants used for the preparation of herbal remedies were mainly leaves, fruits, roots/rhizomes, bark, and whole plant. These medicinal plants/ plant parts were used to cure different ailment, being widely used for stomachic/ digestive disorders, wounds/ soars/ pimples/ blisters, cough cold/ rheumatism, diarrhea, bilious fever/ malaria, dysentery and respiratory problems. Some plants were used for treating more than one disease. Therefore, efforts should be made to survey the region thoroughly for more such plants, which should be introduced into the experimental gardens to have an idea about the optimum conditions for their growth, and for assessing the right period when the active principles in them is at the maximum level. The role of ethno-medicinal plants for the welfare of humanity will be of immense value in the years to come. The survey conducted in Shivalik hills zone of Himachal Pradesh demonstrated the need for documenting the traditional knowledge of local herbal experts which will otherwise dilute or even erase with the passage of time. Ethno-medicinally important plants of the area, Cassia fistula,Terminalia, Aegle marmelos, Vitex nigundo and Viola serpens are recommended for further ethno-pharmacological studies.

CONCLUSION: During the study, a total of two hundred species of plants have been identified and enumerated from Shivalik hills zone of Himachal Pradesh, North-West Himalaya. The highest number of species belongs to the families Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Leguminosae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae, Ranunculaceae and Sapindaceae. A wide range of diseases of human ranging from cough and cold to asthma and bronchitis, cuts and wounds to snakebites, and are treated by the traditional healers of study area with the help of these local plant remedies. Some of these plants are also used for ethno-veterinarian practices by livestock owners to diagnose animal diseases like foot and mouth disease, constipation, dysentery and de-worming etc. It was observed that unsustainable collection methods, poor post-harvest methods, soil erosion, intense deforestation and grazing animals are causing serious threat to these plants.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors appreciated the collaboration of the key informants (Vaidya) and village elders who spread their time and provided this valuable knowledge on ethno-medicinal plants.

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27. Sharma P. K, Thakur R., Gulshan, Deepika and Kumar D. (2013) Studies on some important medicinal and aromatic plants and their traditional usages in district Hamirpur- A sub Himalayan tropical region of Himachal Pradesh, India, Weekly Sci. Res. J., 1(7), 2321-2340.

28. Sharma N. and Kumar G. (2015) Exploration of some ethno-medicinal plants used by natives of Hamirpur District in Himachal Pradesh, India, Asian Agri-History, 19(2), 95-104.